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The rear edge of the German battle zone along the ridge, had been reinforced with machine-gun posts and the German divisional commanders decided to hold the front line, rather than giving ground elastically and few of the Eingreif divisions were needed to intervene in the battle. In 1939 Wynne wrote that the French lost 117,000 casualties including 32,000 killed in the first few days but that the effect on military and civilian morale was worse than the casualties. In the 1939 volume of Der Weltkrieg, the German official historians recorded German losses to the end of June as 163,000 men including 37,000 missing and claimed French casualties of 250,000–300,000 men, including 10,500 taken prisoner. In 1962, G. W. L. Nicholson the Canadian Official Historian, recorded German losses of c. 163,000 and French casualties of 187,000 men.[43] A 2003 web publication gave 108,000 French casualties, 49,526 in the Fifth Army, 30,296 casualties in the Sixth Army, 4,849 in the Tenth Army, 2,169 in the Fourth Army and 1,486 in the Third Army. In 2005, Doughty quoted figures of 134,000 French casualties on the Aisne from 16–25 April, of whom 30,000 men were killed, 100,000 were wounded and 4,000 were taken prisoner; the rate of casualties was the worst since November 1914. From 16 April – 10 May the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Tenth armies took 28,500 prisoners and 187 guns. The advance of the Sixth Army was one of the largest made by a French army since trench warfare began. The Battle of La Malmaison (Bataille de la Malmaison) (23–27 October) led to the capture of the village and fort of La Malmaison and control of the Chemin des Dames ridge. The 7th Army commander Boehn, was not able to establish a defence in depth along the Chemin-de-Dames, because the ridge was a hog's back and the only alternative was to retire north of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. The German artillery was outnumbered about 3:1 and on the front of the 14th Division 32 German batteries were bombarded by 125 French artillery batteries. Much of the German artillery was silenced before the French attack. Gas bombardments in the Ailette valley became so dense that the carriage of ammunition and supplies to the front was made impossible. German retreat from the Chemin des Dames, November 1917 From 24–25 October the XXI and XIV corps advanced rapidly and the I Cavalry Corps was brought forward into the XIV Corps area, in case the Germans collapsed. On 25 October the French captured the village and forest of Pinon and closed up to the line of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. In four days the attack had advanced 6 miles (9.7 km) and forced the Germans from the narrow plateau of the Chemin des Dames, back to the north bank of the Ailette Valley. The French took 11,157 prisoners, 200 guns and 220 heavy mortars. French losses were 2,241 men killed, 8,162 wounded and 1,460 missing from 23–26 October, 10 percent of the casualties of the attacks during the Nivelle Offensive.

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以下のとおりお答えします。字数が制限をオーバーしたようですので、2回に分けて送信します。 (回答その1) >The rear edge of the German battle zone along the ridge, had been reinforced with machine-gun posts and the German divisional commanders decided to hold the front line, rather than giving ground elastically and few of the Eingreif divisions were needed to intervene in the battle. In 1939 Wynne wrote that the French lost 117,000 casualties including 32,000 killed in the first few days but that the effect on military and civilian morale was worse than the casualties. ⇒尾根に沿った交戦地帯の端に展開するドイツ軍後衛部が、機関銃哨戒陣地によって補強されたことで、ドイツ軍師団長は弾力的に退くことよりはむしろ最前線を占拠することに決めたので、アイングライフ師団にとって戦いに介入するのに必要な兵士は少数でよくなった。1939年にウィンは、フランス軍が最初の数日に死亡者32,000人を含む117,000人の犠牲者を失ったが、それは犠牲者数より軍人や一般人の士気に対する悪影響が大であった、と書いた。 >In the 1939 volume of Der Weltkrieg, the German official historians recorded German losses to the end of June as 163,000 men including 37,000 missing and claimed French casualties of 250,000–300,000 men, including 10,500 taken prisoner. In 1962, G. W. L. Nicholson the Canadian Official Historian, recorded German losses of c. 163,000 and French casualties of 187,000 men.[43] A 2003 web publication gave 108,000 French casualties, 49,526 in the Fifth Army, 30,296 casualties in the Sixth Army, 4,849 in the Tenth Army, 2,169 in the Fourth Army and 1,486 in the Third Army. ⇒1939年、世界大戦関係の数値についてドイツの公報史家が、6月の終わりまでのドイツ軍の損失として、37,000人の行方不明を含めて兵員163,000人の犠牲者数を記録し、フランス軍の犠牲者を、捕縛された10,500人の囚人を含めて250,000–300,000人であったと断言した。1962年、カナダの公式歴史家G.W.L.ニコルソンは、ドイツ軍の損失を約163,000人、フランス軍の犠牲者を187,000人と記録した。2003年のウェブ発表では、フランス軍の犠牲者は108,000人で、そのうち第5方面軍で49,526人、第6方面軍で30,296人、第10方面軍で4,849人、第4方面軍で2,169人、第3方面軍で1,486人という数値を示した。 >In 2005, Doughty quoted figures of 134,000 French casualties on the Aisne from 16–25 April, of whom 30,000 men were killed, 100,000 were wounded and 4,000 were taken prisoner; the rate of casualties was the worst since November 1914. From 16 April – 10 May the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Tenth armies took 28,500 prisoners and 187 guns. The advance of the Sixth Army was one of the largest made by a French army since trench warfare began. The Battle of La Malmaison (Bataille de la Malmaison) (23–27 October) led to the capture of the village and fort of La Malmaison and control of the Chemin des Dames ridge. ⇒2005年、ドーティは4月16–25日の間エーンにおけるフランス軍の犠牲者の数値は134,000人で、そのうち30,000人が死亡、100,000人が負傷、そして、4,000人が捕虜になった、という数値を引合いに出した。犠牲者の率は、1914年11月以来最悪であった。4月16日–5月10日の間、第4、第5、第6、第10方面軍は、28,500人の囚人と187門の銃砲を捕縛した。第6方面軍の進軍は、塹壕戦が始まって以来フランス軍によって行われた進軍のうち最大級の1つであった。「ラ・マルメゾンの戦い」(10月23–27日)は、ラ・マルメゾン村と砦の攻略、およびシュマン・デ・ダム尾根の制御に至った。 >The 7th Army commander Boehn, was not able to establish a defence in depth along the Chemin-de-Dames, because the ridge was a hog's back and the only alternative was to retire north of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. The German artillery was outnumbered about 3:1 and on the front of the 14th Division 32 German batteries were bombarded by 125 French artillery batteries. Much of the German artillery was silenced before the French attack. Gas bombardments in the Ailette valley became so dense that the carriage of ammunition and supplies to the front was made impossible. ⇒第7方面軍の指揮官ベーンは、シュマン・デ・ダムに沿って広範の防御を行うことができなかった。その尾根が豚背丘(とんぱいきゅう、切り立った山の瀬)で、唯一の選択肢はオワーズからエーンに至る運河の北に退却することしかなかったからである。ドイツ軍砲兵隊は3対1の数的劣勢で、第14師団の前線では、ドイツ軍の32個砲兵中隊がフランス軍の125個砲兵中隊によって攻撃された。ドイツ軍砲兵隊の多くは、フランス軍の攻撃の前に沈黙した。エレット渓谷でのガス爆撃は濃厚すぎて、前線への弾薬や供給品の運搬が不可能になったほどであった。

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(回答その2) >German retreat from the Chemin des Dames, November 1917 From 24–25 October the XXI and XIV corps advanced rapidly and the I Cavalry Corps was brought forward into the XIV Corps area, in case the Germans collapsed. On 25 October the French captured the village and forest of Pinon and closed up to the line of the Canal de l'Oise à l'Aisne. In four days the attack had advanced 6 miles (9.7 km) and forced the Germans from the narrow plateau of the Chemin des Dames, back to the north bank of the Ailette Valley. The French took 11,157 prisoners, 200 guns and 220 heavy mortars. French losses were 2,241 men killed, 8,162 wounded and 1,460 missing from 23–26 October, 10 percent of the casualties of the attacks during the Nivelle Offensive. ⇒シュマン・デ・ダムからのドイツ軍の撤退(1917年11月) 10月24–25日、第XXI、第XIV軍団は素早く進軍して、ドイツ軍が崩壊する場合に備えて、第I騎兵軍団が第XIV軍団地域に送り出された。10月25日、フランス軍はピノンの村と森を攻略して、オワーズからエーンに至る運河を封鎖した。4日間で、攻撃は6マイル(9.7キロ)前進して、ドイツ軍をシュマン・デ・ダムの狭い台地からエレット渓谷の北岸へ押し戻した。フランス軍は、11,157人の囚人、200丁の銃と220門の重迫撃砲を捕縛した。10月23–26日のフランス軍の損失は、2,241人の死亡、8,162人の負傷、1,460人の行方不明で、犠牲者率は「ニヴェーユ攻撃」の間の10%であった。

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    Mason wrote in 2000 that there had been 378,000 French and 337,000 German casualties. In 2003, Clayton quoted 330,000 German casualties, of whom 143,000 were killed or missing and 351,000 French losses, 56,000 killed, 100,000 missing or prisoners and 195,000 wounded. Writing in 2005, Doughty gave French casualties at Verdun, from 21 February to 20 December 1916 as 377,231 men of 579,798 losses at Verdun and the Somme; 16 percent of Verdun casualties were known to have been killed, 56 percent wounded and 28 percent missing, many of whom were eventually presumed dead. Doughty wrote that other historians had followed Churchill (1927) who gave a figure of 442,000 casualties by mistakenly including all French losses on the Western Front. (In 2014, Philpott recorded 377,000 French casualties, of whom 162,000 men had been killed, German casualties were 337,000 men and a recent estimate of casualties at Verdun from 1914 to 1918 was 1,250,000 men).

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    The états numériques des pertes give French losses in a range from 348,000 to 378,000 and in 1930, Wendt recorded French Second Army and German 5th Army casualties of 362,000 and 336,831 respectively, from 21 February to 20 December, not taking account of the inclusion or exclusion of lightly wounded. In 2006, McRandle and Quirk used the Sanitätsbericht to adjust the Verlustlisten by an increase of c. 11 percent, which gave a total of 373,882 German casualties, compared to the French Official History record by 20 December 1916, of 373,231 French losses. A German record from the Sanitätsbericht, which explicitly excluded lightly wounded, compared German losses at Verdun in 1916, which averaged 37.7 casualties for each 1,000 men, with the 9th Army in Poland 1914 average of 48.1 per 1,000, the 11th Army average in Galicia 1915 of 52.4 per 1,000 men, the 1st Army Somme 1916 average of 54.7 per 1,000 and the 2nd Army average on the Somme of 39.1 per 1,000 men.

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