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On 13 December Briand formed a new government, reducing the size of the Council of Ministers from 23 to 10 and replacing Roques with General Lyautey. That day his government survived a vote of confidence by 30 votes, and Joffre was appointed "general-in-chief of the French armies, technical adviser to the government, consultative member of the War Committee" (he was persuaded to accept by Briand, but soon found that he had been stripped of real power and asked to be relieved altogether on 26 December), with Nivelle replacing him as commander-in-chief of the Armies of the North and Northeast. A Senate Secret Session on 21 December attacked Briand's plans for a smaller war cabinet as “yet another level of bureaucracy”; on 23 December Briand pledged that he would continue to push for a “permanent Allied bureau” to secure constant cooperation between the Allied nations

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>On 13 December Briand formed a new government, reducing the size of the Council of Ministers from 23 to 10 and replacing Roques with General Lyautey. That day his government survived a vote of confidence by 30 votes, and Joffre was appointed "general-in-chief of the French armies, technical adviser to the government, consultative member of the War Committee" (he was persuaded to accept by Briand, but soon found that he had been stripped of real power and asked to be relieved altogether on 26 December), with Nivelle replacing him as commander-in-chief of the Armies of the North and Northeast. ⇒12月13日、ブリアンは新しい政府をつくった。そして、23人から10人まで会議の大臣数を減らして、ローケをリョーテ将軍と入れ替えた。その日、彼の政府は30票の信任投票を得て存続し、ジョフルは、「フランス軍の長官将軍、政府の技術アドバイザー、戦争委員会の顧問メンバー」に任命された(彼はブリアンによって受け入れるよう説得されたが、まもなく本当の権力を剥ぎ取られて、12月26日に全面的な解放するように頼まれたのだと分かった)。彼の後は、ニヴェーユが北部および北東部軍の司令官として継いだ。 >A Senate Secret Session on 21 December attacked Briand's plans for a smaller war cabinet as “yet another level of bureaucracy”; on 23 December Briand pledged that he would continue to push for a “permanent Allied bureau” to secure constant cooperation between the Allied nations ⇒12月21日の上院秘密議会は、より小さな戦争内閣のためのブリアン計画を「もう1つのレベルの官僚機構」だと非難した。12月23日に、ブリアンは、彼が連合国間の恒常的な協力を確保するために「永久の連合国軍事務局」(の設置)を要求し続けると誓った。

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    The opening weeks of Briand's ministry required him to broker an agreement between General Gallieni, the new War Minister, and General Joffre, newly (2 December) promoted to “Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies” (generalissimo) over all theatres apart from North Africa. In the poisonous atmosphere after the opening of the German attack at Verdun (21 February 1916), Gallieni read an angry report at the Council of Ministers on 7 March criticising Joffre's conduct of operations over the last eighteen months and demanding ministerial control, then resigned. He was falsely suspected of wanting to launch a military takeover of the government. Briand knew that publication of the report would damage morale and might bring down the government. Gallieni was persuaded to remain in office until a replacement had been agreed. General Roques was appointed after it had been ensured that Joffre had no objections.

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    In November Ferry presented a report on the shortage of manpower. A secret session was held on 21 November about calling up the Class of 1918 followed by another a week later. On 27 November Briand proposed that Joffre be effectively demoted to commander-in-chief in northern France, with both he and Sarrail reporting to the War Minister, although he withdrew this proposal after Joffre threatened resignation. The Closed Session began on 28 November and lasted until 7 December. Briand had little choice but to make concessions to preserve his government, and in a speech of 29 November he promised to repeal Joffre's promotion of December 1915 and in vague terms to appoint a general as technical adviser to the government. Briand survived a confidence vote by 344-160 (six months earlier he had won a confidence vote 440-80).

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    The first formal Allied conference met in Paris on 26 March 1916 (Italy did not participate) but initially made little impact, perhaps because Briand had vetoed the British suggestion of a permanent secretariat, or perhaps because there had been three informal sets of Anglo-French talks in the last quarter of 1915, one of which, the Chantilly meeting, had already seen strategy plans drawn up. Late in March 1916 Joffre and Briand blocked the withdrawal of five British divisions from Salonika. Briand was widely suspected of wanting to make his mistress Princess George Queen of Greece. In the spring of 1916 Briand urged Sarrail to take the offensive in the Balkans to take some of the heat off Verdun, although the British, preoccupied with the upcoming Somme offensive, declined to send further troops and Sarrail’s offensive that summer was not a success. Briand also attended the conference at Saleux on 31 May 1916 about the upcoming Anglo-French offensive on the Somme, with President Poincaré (on whose train it was held), General Foch (commander, Army Group North) and the British Commander-in-Chief General Haig.

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    This brought about the stabilization of the entire front line and forced the Allies to call off the offensive altogether. The opposing sides were now free to regroup their exhausted forces and fortify their lines. The strategic situation in the early spring of 1917 on all European theaters of war, except the Romanian portion of the Eastern Front, favored the implementation of the Allied offensive plans that were adopted during the inter-allied conference of November 1916 held in Chantilly, France. These plans included an offensive on the Macedonian Front designed to support main the Allied efforts on the other fronts and if possible completely defeat Bulgaria with the assistance of Russian and Romanian forces. The Bulgarians on their part asked the Germans to join an offensive against Salonika with six divisions but the German High Command refused and forced the adoption of a purely defensive stance of the Central Powers forces on the Balkan Front. The commander of the Allied armies on the Salonika Front General Sarrail commenced preparations for the offensive as soon as he received his orders. By early spring 1917 he produced a general plan that envisaged a main attack delivered in the Serbian sector by the Serbian 2nd Army and at least two other secondary attacks - the first by the British to the east of the Vardar and the second by the Italians and French in the Crna Bend. French and Greek forces to the west of the Vardar were also to undertake aggressive action. The commander of the French Army of the East General Paul Grossetti informed his superior that his forces would need at least 40 days to prepare for the operations which forced General Sarrail to set the start of the offensive for the 12 of April 1917.

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    Nivelle believed the Germans had been exhausted by the Battle of Verdun and the Battle of the Somme in 1916 and could not resist a breakthrough offensive, which could be completed in 24–48 hours. The main attack on the Aisne would be preceded by a large diversionary attack by the British Third and First armies at Arras. The French War Minister, Hubert Lyautey and Chief of Staff General Henri-Philippe Pétain opposed the plan, believing it to be premature. The British Commander-in-Chief, Sir Douglas Haig, supported the concept of a decisive battle but insisted that if the first two phases of the Nivelle scheme were unsuccessful, the British effort would be moved north to Flanders. Nivelle threatened to resign if the offensive did not go ahead and having not lost a battle, had the enthusiastic support of the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. The French Prime Minister Aristide Briand supported Nivelle but the war minister Lyautey resigned during a dispute with the Chamber of Deputies and the Briand government fell; a new government under Alexandre Ribot took office on 20 March. The Second Battle of the Aisne involved c. 1.2 million troops and 7,000 guns on a front from Reims to Roye, with the main effort against the German positions along the Aisne river. The original plan of December 1916 was plagued by delays and information leaks.

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    At midnight on 31 July – 1 August, the German government sent an ultimatum to Russia and announced a state of "Kriegsgefahr" during the day; the Turkish government ordered mobilisation and the London Stock Exchange closed. On 1 August the British government ordered the mobilisation of the navy, the German government ordered general mobilisation and declared war on Russia. Hostilities commenced on the Polish frontier, the French government ordered general mobilisation and next day the German government sent an ultimatum to Belgium, demanding passage through Belgian territory, as German troops crossed the frontier of Luxembourg.

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