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After these successes the brigade was directed to conquer the remaining parts of the Eastern Sector, including forts 9, 10, 11 and 12. Meeting little resistance, as the arriving Romanian reinforcements were often caught up by retreating units and compelled to join them, the Bulgarians accomplished this task and by 21:30 reached the shore of the Danube, completing the isolation of the fortress.


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  • Nakay702
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>After these successes the brigade was directed to conquer the remaining parts of the Eastern Sector, including forts 9, 10, 11 and 12. ⇒これらの成功の後、旅団は、9番、10番、11番、および12番砦を含む東区画の残留部分を征服するように命じられた。 >Meeting little resistance, as the arriving Romanian reinforcements were often caught up by retreating units and compelled to join them, the Bulgarians accomplished this task and by 21:30 reached the shore of the Danube, completing the isolation of the fortress. ⇒到着するルーマニア軍の強化隊は、しばしば退却する部隊につかまり、彼らに合流することを強制されたので、ブルガリア軍は、ほとんど抵抗に遭遇することなくこの仕事を完了し、21時30分までにダニューブ川の岸辺まで到着して、要塞の隔離・孤立化を強制した。





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    By 11:20 the Romanians had been completely expelled, but with its commander wounded and its units disorganized the 31st Regiment did not pursue, and was content with firing on the retreating defenders from the trenches. The 7th Preslav Regiment meanwhile had been faced with even stronger Romanian fire, and was able to advance only at about 12:00, when its commander, Colonel Dobrev, personally led the assault against a fortification thought by the Bulgarians to be fort 8, but which was actually one of the so-called subcenters of defense that were situated in the gaps between the forts.

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    The attack commenced on 29 September on a 50 miles (80 km) wide front from Flămânda, near Oltenița, to Zimnicea in the direction of Mackensen's western flank, with the Romanian forces enjoying superiority in numbers of infantry personnel and artillery equipment. However, the Romanian struggle to cross the Danube was slowed by the Austro-Hungarian Navy's Danube Flotilla. On October 1, two Romanian divisions crossed the Danube at Flămânda and created a bridgehead 14 kilometer-wide and 4 kilometer-deep. This area was expanded on the following day, with eight Bulgarian settlements ending up in Romanian hands.

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    The battle lasted for five days and ended with the capture of the fortress of Tutrakan (Turtucaia in Romanian) and the surrender of its Romanian defenders.Early on the morning of 2 September the Bulgarian Third Army crossed the Romanian border along its entire length, and its left wing began closing on the fortress. Colonel Kaufman's German-Bulgarian detachment advanced against Sector I (West) of the fortress, pushing back the weak Romanian vanguards and taking up positions to the east of the village of Turk Smil, where they were halted by strong Romanian artillery fire from the Danube Flotilla and batteries on the river islands.

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    Around 13:00 general Teodorescu ordered the commander of the sector to abandon forts 2, 3, 4 and 5. By the end of the day only fort 1 was still in Romanian hands, as it had powerful artillery cover from the Danube monitors and batteries on the left bank of the river. By the evening of 5 September the entire main defensive line (save two forts) had been taken, along with all of the Romanian fixed artillery and part of the mobile artillery. The Romanian units were so disorganized that a planned counterattack with the new reinforcements from the 15th Division had to be postponed for the next day.

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    Despite heavy casualties, some 250,000 men, which were almost one third of the manpower mobilized in August 1916, and losses of combat material, the Romanian Army was still a force taken into consideration by allies and enemies alike and capable to offer resistance to further attacks. Before retreating, Romanian troops burned down the oil wells at Ploiești along with the surrounding wheat fields so as to keep them out of the hands of the Central Powers. Bucharest was eventually liberated after the Central Powers' surrender in 1918.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    After the fall of forts 5 and 6 the Bulgarians pursued the retreating defenders until 16:00, advancing two kilometers to the north of the main defensive line. The Kmetov Brigade captured 250 soldiers, 4 heavy batteries, six 53 mm turret guns and many rifles. Its artillery had fired 2,606 shells. Both Romanian and Bulgarian infantry losses were heavy, with the 19th Shumen Regiment suffering 1,652 casualties. To the east of the 3/4 Brigade was the Ikonomov Brigade, tasked with the capture of fort 7.

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    The Romanian crossing of the Danube was contested by the Danube Flotilla of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, commanded by Captain Karl Lucich. The first Austro-Hungarian warships to enter combat were the patrol boats Barsch and Viza, on the morning of 2 October. Barsch was shelled by Romanian artillery and lost her steering, along with 3 of her crew killed and 5 wounded. The two patrol boats retreated, only to be replaced by the river monitors Bodrog and Körös. The two warships were unable to shatter the bridge with their guns. Romanian artillery fired at Bodrog, which took 5 hits and was forced out of the battle. Körös was also shelled by the Romanians, taking 12 hits and ran aground after her steam lines were severed by Romanian artillery.

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    At 13:40 he himself boarded a boat to cross the Danube, leaving behind thousands of panicked soldiers, some of whom tried to follow his example but ended drowning in the river or being hit by artillery fire. Romanian attempts to break out and escape towards Silistra also proved largely unsuccessful in the face of the Bulgarian artillery. As the Bulgarians entered the town the defenders began surrendering in large groups. At 15:30 colonel Marasescu, who was now in charge of the garrison, and his senior officers wrote a note to general Kiselov in German and dispatched it to three of the sectors, offering the unconditional surrender of the fortress together with all its men and material.

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    The forts were triangular or quadrangular and built of concrete, with a surrounding ditch and barbed-wire entanglements. The superstructures were buried and only mounds of concrete or masonry and soil were visible. The forts were armed with 78 x 210-millimetre (8.3 in) howitzers, 150-millimetre (5.9 in) and 120-millimetre (4.7 in) guns and 57-millimetre (2.2 in) quick-firers. Each fort had retractable cupolas, mounting guns up to 6-inch (150 mm) and the main guns were mounted in steel turrets with 360° traverse but only the 57-millimetre (2.2 in) turret could be elevated. The forts contained magazines for the storage of ammunition, crew quarters for up to 500 men and electric generators for lighting. Provision had been made for the daily needs of the fortress troops but the latrines, showers, kitchens and the morgue had been built in the counterscarp, which could become untenable if fumes from exploding shells, collected in the living quarters and support areas as the forts were ventilated naturally. Pentagonal Brialmont fort, 1914 The forts were not linked and could only communicate by telephone and telegraph, the wires for which were not buried. Smaller fortifications and trench lines in the gaps between the forts, to link and protect them had been planned by Brialmont but had not been built by 1914.

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    The flags of four regiments (4th, 18th, 30th Infantry and 2nd Vânători) were decorated with the same distinction, while a Class II Ordinul Mihai Viteazul medal was bestowed upon General Averescu. Archduke Joseph made a report identifying and presenting the principal causes for his defeat at Mărăști: "An admirable cooperation between artillery, infantry and aviation in breaking through our lines and preparing this assault. Their planes flew undisturbed by the firing of our artillery." "The mine-throwers performed excellently in places that we passed through." "The exhaustion of our retreating troops on difficult terrain." The Romanian Army "continuously changed its first-rank troops, who were led away by the inhabitants to their villages." During the Battle of Mărăști, the highest average rate of offensive actions by Allied troops in the European theatre in 1917 was achieved, as shown by the following table. Offensive action     Dates   (NS)   Length   (days)   Front   (km)   Depth of penetration   (km)   Average rate   (km/day) British Artois offensive 9 April - 5 May 27 24 5 0.2 Second Battle of the Aisne 16 April - 5 May 19 0 5 0.3 French offensive at Moronvilliers 17 April - 20 May 34 12 3 0.1 Allied offensive in Flanders 7–8 June 2 16 4 2.0 Romanian offensive at Mărăști 24 July - 1 August 9 35 28 3.0 The Romanian victory strongly affected public opinion, as illustrated by the reactions of the press. A few days after the battle was over, The Times wrote: "The only point of light in the East is to be found in Romania, where the rebuilt army is vigorously attacking the Carpathian lines, obtaining notable successes." France's Minister of War used the same tone to describe the Romanian victory: "The French Army has learned with joy of the beautiful successes of the Romanian Army (...) Please send my warmest congratulations and the most hearty good wishes of the French soldiers to their brothers in arms." The success of this offensive caused Field Marshal von Mackensen to move a significant part of the 9th German Army from Nămoloasa toward Focșani.