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However, it is not clear how far this outlook extended beyond these activists. Without a better understanding of the political implications of important variables such as patterns of bilingualism and rates of Mexican immigration and naturalization, and the variations in ethnic consciousness these variables help to create, one cannot assume that an increase in the proportion of Mexican Americans born in the U.S. necessarily resulted in an increase in the ethnic Mexican population's political activism. この文を訳すとどうなるでしょうか。特に and the variations in ethnic consciousness these variables help to createの部分がよくわかりませんでした。variationsとvariablesはここでは別物をさしているのでしょうか?


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1。訳  しかしながら、これが、このような行動の外にまで広がるかどうかは明らかでない。  二重言語の諸形態やメキシコからの移民や帰化の率、こう言った変数が生み出す民族的自覚の相違といった重要な可変数の政治的に持つ含みが、今より良く理解されなければ、アメリカ合衆国内で生まれたメキシコ系米人の比率増加が、必ずしも民族的メキシコ系の政治活動の活発化に繋がるとは速断できない。 2。。variationsとvariablesはここでは別物をさしているのでしょうか?  variations は、いろいろな変形。  variables は、そのようないろいろな変形を生み出す要因、  という意味でしょう。ですから関係はあるが同じものではない、いわば、variables は原因、variations は、その結果だと思います。





  • つぎの英文の意味を教えてください。

    Jack London's own adventures are more varied and amazing than those of the hero in many an imaginary thriller. よろしくお願いします。

  • お手数ですが、次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The political fragmentation involved in the baku-han system naturally made for an irrational duplication of administrative functions, and inevitably produced an overabundance of officials. However, it also gave the entire country the elementary political disciplines of effective law and order and tax collection, not only at the local-regional but also at the local-village levels. Moreover, despite the regionalist and pluralist assumptions of the system, resemblances between one governing authority and another (i.e.,han and han, han and bakufu) were sufficiently close to create a common political culture, an experience of government which was shard across the nation and which affected all classes. Willingness to obey the commands of official superiors, even in the matter of taxes, and the existence of a common political culture, enabled the country’s leaders after 1868 to proceed rapidly with their self appointed task of building a unified and progressive nation state.

  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The Ottoman forces opposing the Australians at Lone Pine consisted of two battalions from the 47th Regiment, under the command of Tevfik Bey. These battalions amounted to a total of about 1,000 men, of which 500 were positioned in the trenches along the front, while another 500 were positioned further back in depth. Sitting further back in divisional reserve, to the north-east on "Mortar Ridge", was a battalion from the 57th Regiment, which had been relieved from its position on the front line north of Lone Pine by an Arab battalion of the 72nd Regiment. The positions north and south of the Ottoman line at Lone Pine were held by the 125th Regiment at Johnston's Jolly in the north and the 48th Regiment in the south along Pine Ridge. The width of the front of the attack was 160 yards (150 m) and the distance between the two trench lines was about 60–100 yards (55–91 m). To reduce the distance to be crossed, the Australians projected a number of tunnels towards the Ottoman trenches from The Pimple. Immediately after the attack, one of these tunnels was to be opened along its length to make a communications trench through which reinforcements could advance without having to cross the exposed ground. Some of the attackers would have to make the advance over open ground from the Australian trench line. To provide some measure of protection for these men, three mines were set by engineers to make craters in which they could seek shelter. The preliminary bombardment was stretched over three days—initially confined to a limited "slow shoot", building up to a final intense bombardment an hour before the assault—and was successful in cutting much of the barbed wire that the Ottomans had placed in front of their position. The preparation stage of the attack began at 2:00 p.m. on 6 August, when the Australians detonated the three mines they had dug in front of the Ottoman lines, in an attempt to create cover for the advancing troops. Two and a half hours later the final heavy preliminary bombardment commenced, with Australian, British and New Zealand artillery batteries firing on the Ottoman trench line, while naval gunfire support from the British cruiser HMS Bacchante provided counter-battery fire on Ottoman artillery positioned along Third Ridge. Retreating into tunnels which had been cut as part of mining operations, the majority of the forward Ottoman troops were able to find shelter from the bombardment that lasted for an hour.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いいたします。

    LATITUDE OF LOVE by Walter Robinson Hiro Yamagata is master of the pop spectacle. In the mid-1990s, the Japanese-born artist, who now lives in Los Angeles, painted a fleet of Mercedes Benz Cabriolet motorcars with a cascade of flowers and butterflies. He has produced paintings for the Olympics and the 100th anniversary of the Eiffel Tower, and made an official portrait of President Ronald Reagan. Hiro has collaborated on projects with Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Schwarzenegger, and designed a set of stamps for Japan. He has produced laser installations in Paris, Los Angeles, St. Louis, Bilbao, Yokohama and Cape Town, some monumental in scale. He has involved himself with worthy charities for people with disabilities, for earthquake victims, and for orphaned children. For the last five years, Hiro has turned his attention to the Bamiyan Valley in Afghanistan, where he proposed a $60-million project for a laser-beam recreation of the destroyed buddha statues there (fueled by solar power). But after several trips to the country, and meetings with government officials, he was forced to abandon the project. In its stead he has been producing a series of somber yet beautiful abstractions, paintings done in black-and-white with rice paper collaged on 6 x 6 ft. canvases, seven of which are now on view in the humble exhibition space of the Tenri Cultural Institute of New York. These works, frankly inspired by Hiro’s visits to Afghanistan, suggest a soaring bird’s-eye view of a dramatic and desolate landscape. The model of consciousness here is a profound one. As we can’t help but draw out in our minds a world of snow and shadow, mountain and crevice, expansive spaces and hollows of human habitation from this fragile surface of thin paper, ink and glue, so do people fill the empty present with all the imagined possibilities of human life. Nowhere is this more true than in the war zone. In these abstractions, in this "Atmosphere," Hiro Yamagata has uncovered something simple but profound, a model of the spark of creativity. Hiro Yamagata, "Atmosphere," Nov. 4-30, 2010, at Tenri Cultural Institute of New York, 43A West 13th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011

  • この英文の意味を教えてください

    "It was the American phenomenon of ethnic turnover which was changing the urban core of Paterson, and that the human flood could not be held back with an accusing finger." アメリカにラテン系移民が増えたことについての記事です。 お願いします。

  • 英文の構造と意味について質問があります。

    The need to take this time and create a situation of physical stability for ourselves and our families seemed to follow naturally from a period of frequently moving around as bachelors and making our records in makeshift studios この場合、SはThe needですよね。The needに対して、不定詞で、 to take this time and create a situation of physical stability for ourselves and our families これが修飾している。 VはseemedでCがto follow そしてfrom以下で修飾ですよね。 シンプルに考えると、The need seemed to follow naturally これでどういった意味になりますか・・・? Every one of our projects is being preceded by a period of building a greater sample library. The library has always been our primary instrument and it takes several months to get to a substantial and meaningful increase of volume: raw materials, like LPs and audiocassettes The library=a greater sample libraryですよね。 問題は次のit takes several monthsのit ですが、これは何を指していますか? 私はEvery one of our projectsだと思っています。 Every one of our projects takes several months to get to a substantial and meaningful increase of volume. これもどういった意味になるでしょうか・・・? increase of volumeが肝だと思うのですがどうも解釈しきれません。

  • 下記の英文を訳してくれる方はいませんか?

    The physiological changes in men gradually lengthen the time needed to get an erection, and reduce the strength of ejaculation and intensity of the orgasm. In women, the physiological changes increase the time required for arousal and lubrication, but do not affect the intensity of the orgasm (Weg,1975). お願いします。

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    The American Journal of Public Health continues to be a leader in the field of Public Health, publishing quality research that is highly cited. Our 2013 impact factor is 4.229, an increase over last year, and ranks the journal #4 out of 136 titles in the Public, Environmental and Occupational Health category in the Social Sciences Citation Index and #14 of 160 titles in the same category for the Science Index. Dr. John Ruffin, Director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, was interveiwed by Dr. Stephen Thomas and Dr. Sandra Quinn of the University of Maryland Center for Health Equity and Guest Editors of this theme issue. Dr. Ruffin discusses a variety of issues related to the importance of including minorities in research, the changing demographics of the US population, new challenges for researchers, the value of community participation, and how minority inclusion research is "not one size fits all." In the wake of the tragic shooting at the Washington, DC, Naval Yard on Monday, September 16, 2013, the journal has compiled a collection of papers and other resources to help promote awareness and policy change surrounding gun violence, veterans health, and suicide. For those seeking more information on organizations that work with victims of gun violence and other types of violence, please consult Chapter 11 from APHA's book, Confronting Violence. Additionally, the following articles and content have been unlocked to public viewing: Shim et al: Primary Care, Behavioral Health, and Public Health: Partners in Reducing Mental Health Stigma. Lewiecki et al: Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy. Siegel et al: The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010. Henderson et al: Mental Illness Stigma, Help Seeking, and Public Health Programs. Magruder et al: The Role of Pain, Functioning, and Mental Health Suicidality Among Veterans Affairs Primary Care Patients. Keyes et al: To Flourish or Not: Positive Mental Health and All-Cause Mortality. Kaplan et al: Suicide Risk and Precipitating Circumstances Among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Male Veterans. Vernick et al: Availability of Litigation as a Public Health Tool for Firearm Injury Prevention: Comparison of Guns, Vaccines, and Motor Vehicles. Branas et al: Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault. Fledderus et al: Mental Health Promotion as a New Goal in Public Mental Health Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Intervention Enhancing Psychological Flexibility. Druss et al: Mental Health Promotion in a Reformed Health Care System. Davis et al: Reduced Mortality Among Department of Veterans Affairs Patients With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Lost to Follow-Up and Engaged in Active Outreach to Return for Care. Lane et al: Prevalence of Perceived Stress and Mental Health Indicators Among Reserve-Component and Active-Duty Military Personnel. Ilgen et al: Patterns of Treatment Utilization Before Suicide Among Male Veterans With Substance Use Disorders. Katz et al: Lessons Learned From Mental Health Enhancement and Suicide Prevention Activities in the Veterans Health Administration.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    “Unlike previous investigations, we were able to assess association of consumption of caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages, and we identify caffeine as the most likely candidate of any putative protective effect of coffee,” said lead researcher Michel Lucas, research fellow in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH. The authors reviewed data from three large U.S. studies and found that the risk of suicide for adults who drank two to four cups of caffeinated coffee per day was about half that of those who drank decaffeinated coffee or very little or no coffee. Caffeine not only stimulates the central nervous system but may act as a mild antidepressant by boosting production of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. This could explain the lower risk of depression among coffee drinkers that had been found in past epidemiological studies, the researchers reported. In the new study, researchers examined data on 43,599 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (1988–2008), 73,820 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (1992–2008), and 91,005 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) (1993–2007). Caffeine, coffee, and decaffeinated coffee intake was assessed every four years by questionnaires. Caffeine consumption was calculated from coffee and other sources, including tea, caffeinated soft drinks, and chocolate. However, coffee was the major caffeine source — 80 percent for NHS, 71 percent for NHS II, and 79 percent for HPFS. Among the participants in the three studies, there were 277 deaths from suicide. In spite of the findings, the authors do not recommend that depressed adults increase caffeine consumption, because most individuals adjust their caffeine intake to an optimal level for them and an increase could result in unpleasant side effects. “Overall, our results suggest that there is little further benefit for consumption above two to three cups/day or 400 mg of caffeine/day,” the authors wrote. The researchers did not observe any major difference in risk between those who drank two to three cups of coffee per day and those who had four or more cups a day, most likely due to the small number of suicide cases in these categories. However, in a previous HSPH coffee-depression study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, the investigators observed a maximal effect among those who drank four or more cups per day. One large Finnish study showed a higher risk of suicide among people drinking eight or nine cups per day. Few participants in the two HSPH studies drank such large amounts of coffee, so the studies did not address the impact of six or more cups of coffee per day.

  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    A British naval squadron bombarded the Dardanelles outer defensive forts at Kum Kale and Seddulbahir; a shell hit a magazine and the explosion knocked the guns off their mounts and killed 86 soldiers. Britain and France declared war on Turkey on 5 November and the Ottomans declared a jihad (holy war) later that month. The Caucasus campaign, an Ottoman attack on Russia through the Caucasus Mountains began in December, leading the Russians to call for aid from Britain in January 1915. The Mesopotamian campaign began with a British landing to occupy the oil facilities in the Persian Gulf. The Ottomans prepared to attack Egypt in early 1915, to occupy the Suez Canal and cut the Mediterranean route to British India and the Far East. Field Marshal Lord Kitchener planned an amphibious landing near Alexandretta in Syria in 1914, to sever the capital from Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Vice Admiral Sir Richard Peirse, East Indies Station, ordered HMS Doris to Alexandretta on 13 December 1914 as the Russian cruiser Askold and the French cruiser Requin were performing similar operations. The Alexandretta landing was abandoned because it required more resources than France could allocate, and politically France did not want the British operating in their sphere of influence, a position to which Britain had agreed in 1912. By late 1914, static warfare had begun on the Western Front, with no prospect of a quick decisive victory and the Central Powers had closed the overland trade routes between Britain, France and Russia. The White Sea in the Arctic and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Far East were icebound in winter and the Baltic Sea was blockaded by the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy). Ottoman belligerence closed the Dardanelles, the remaining supply route to Russia. In November 1914, the French Minister Aristide Briand proposed an attack on the Ottoman Empire but the idea was rejected and an attempt by the British to buy off the Ottomans also failed. On 2 January 1915, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia appealed to Britain for assistance against the Ottoman Erzurum Offensive in the Caucasus and planning began for a naval demonstration in the Dardanelles, as a diversion. Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed an invasion of Schleswig-Holstein by sea, drawing Denmark into the war and re-opening the Baltic Sea route to Russia and an attack on the Dardanelles, to control the Mediterranean-Black Sea supply route and to encourage Bulgaria and Romania to join the Allies. The urgency of the Russian appeal and disdain for the military power of the Ottoman Empire made a campaign in the Dardanelles appear feasible.