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At 4:00 a.m. on 7 August, shortly before dawn, the Germans launched their final counter-attack. On a front of 400 yards (370 m) they overran the thinly occupied O.G. Lines, catching most of the Australians in shelters in the old German dugouts and advanced towards Pozières. For the Australians, the crisis had arrived. At this moment, Lieutenant Albert Jacka, who had won the Victoria Cross at Gallipoli, emerged from a dugout where he and seven men of his platoon had been isolated, and charged the German line from the rear. His example inspired other Australians scattered across the plateau to join the action and a fierce, hand-to-hand fight developed.


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>At 4:00 a.m. on 7 August, shortly before dawn, the Germans launched their final counter-attack. On a front of 400 yards (370 m) they overran the thinly occupied O.G. Lines, catching most of the Australians in shelters in the old German dugouts and advanced towards Pozières. For the Australians, the crisis had arrived. ⇒8月7日午前4時、夜明けの直前に、ドイツ軍は最終的な反撃を開始した。400ヤード(370m)の前線で、彼らはまばらに占拠されたO.G.戦線を侵略し、古いドイツ軍の待避壕で大部分のオーストラリア軍を捕縛し、ポジェールの方へ進軍した。オーストラリア軍にとって、一大危機が到来した。 At this moment, Lieutenant Albert Jacka, who had won the Victoria Cross* at Gallipoli, emerged from a dugout where he and seven men of his platoon had been isolated, and charged the German line from the rear. His example inspired other Australians scattered across the plateau to join the action and a fierce, hand-to-hand fight developed. アルバート・ジャッカ中尉はガリポリ(戦)でビクトリア十字勲章*を授けられた人だが、この時、彼と彼の小隊の7人の兵士が孤立した待避壕から出てきて、後方からドイツ軍戦線に突撃をかけた。彼の模範的行動に台地の全域に散らばっていた他のオーストラリア兵らも奮起し、その戦闘に合流して、激しい接近戦に発展した。 *Victoria Cross (VC)「ビクトリア十字勲章」:戦功のあった軍人に対する英国最高の勲章。





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    Lines made the eastern end of Pozières vulnerable and so the Australians formed a flank short of their objectives. On the western edge of the village, the Australians captured a German bunker known as "Gibraltar". During 23 July, some Australians went prospecting across the road, captured a number of Germans and with minimal effort occupied more of the village. That night the 8th Battalion of the Australian 2nd Brigade, which had been in reserve, moved up and secured the rest of the village. The attack of the 48th Division on the German trenches west of Pozières achieved some success but the main attack by the Fourth Army between Pozières and Guillemont was a costly failure.

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    At 7:00 a.m. the protective bombardment increased in intensity and began to creep forward again, moving at 100 yards (91 m) in three minutes, as some divisions used battalions from their third brigade and other divisions those that had attacked earlier. Most of the tanks still operational were outstripped but some caught up the infantry. Fresh battalions of the New Zealand Division leap-frogged through those which had attacked earlier and advanced either side of Messines, where some German posts still held out. A German artillery headquarters at Blauwen Molen (blue windmill), 500 yards (460 m) beyond Messines, was captured and a tank broke into a strong point at Fanny's Farm, causing a hundred Germans to surrender. The reserve brigade of the 25th Division continued the advance to the north except at Lumm Farm, which was eventually taken with assistance from the right flank troops of the 36th (Ulster) Division. Helped by two tanks, the rest of the 36th (Ulster) Division advanced to the right of Wytschaete village and captured a German battalion headquarters. Wytschaete had been fortified like Messines but special bombardments fired on 3 June had demolished the village. Two battalions of the 16th (Irish) Division overran the German survivors and on the left, the reserve brigade of the 19th Division took the area from Wytschaete village to Oosttaverne Wood with little resistance. X Corps had greater difficulty reaching some of its final objectives; the loss of White Château disorganised the German defenders adjacent to the south. The 41st Division easily crossed the summit and reached the rear slope of the ridge 500 yards (460 m) away, which overlooked the eastern slope and Roozebeke valley, taking many prisoners at Denys and Ravine woods. North of the canal, the 47th Division had to capture a spoil heap 400 yards (370 m) long, where several German machine-gun nests had been dug in.

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    After the defeats of 20 May, the Germans counter-attacked the next day and were repulsed. On 23 May, an assault on Mont Haut was stopped by artillery-fire and on 25 May, the French took more ground on both sides of Mont Cornillet and took 120 prisoners. At dawn on 2 May, German attacks began at Le Téton and the French positions further east and gained temporary footholds in the French positions, before counter-attacks forced the German infantry back. In the afternoon, a German attack on the summit of Le Casque and more attacks at dusk on Le Casque and Le Téton failed, as did an attempt at dawn on 28 May; a raid against the French on Mont Blond and a fresh attack on Mont Blond on 30 May, also failed. After a gas bombardment on Mont Blond and the French lines north-west of Aubérive, German infantry attacked again at 2:00 a.m. on 31 May, at Mont Haut, Le Casque and Le Téton. The German attacks continued all day and were eventually defeated in hand-to-hand fighting; some advanced posts north-east of Mont Haut were captured, until French counter-attacks managed to push the Germans back. By 3 June, Army Group German Crown Prince had recovered hardly any ground lost from 16 April – 20 May on the Aisne front and on the Moronvilliers Heights. German counter-attacks had mostly been costly failures and from 16 April – 2 June, the Franco-British had taken c. 52,000 prisoners, 440 heavy and field guns, many trench mortars and more than 1,000 machine-guns.

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    The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. In 1916, the German offensive at the Battle of Verdun had been a costly failure. The Anglo-French offensive at the Battle of the Somme had forced a defensive battle on the Germans, leaving the western armies (Westheer) exhausted. On the Eastern Front, the Brusilov Offensive had inflicted huge losses on the Austro-Hungarian armies in Russia and forced the Germans to take over more of the front. The declaration of war by Romania had placed additional strain on the German army and war economy. Construction of the Hindenburg Line in France was begun by the Germans in September 1916, to make a retirement from the Somme front possible, to counter an anticipated increase in the power of Anglo-French attacks in 1917.

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    In preparation, British columns had stationed themselves at various intervals along Nigeria's border with the German colony, the northernmost of which, commanded by Captain R. W. Fox, was stationed at Maiduguri, across the border from the German fort at Mora. This Nigerian detachment, consisting of one infantry and one mounted company, had entrenched itself on the frontier while awaiting orders and gathering intelligence on German forces in the region. The fort at Mora, about 100 miles south of Lake Chad, near the colony's western border with Nigeria, was guarded by a company of Schutztruppen (protection troops) under the command of Captain Ernst von Raben. Initially the garrison consisted of 14 European and 125 African soldiers, most of whom were tough, well-trained Askaris. Von Raben managed to recruit 65 more men before the Allied siege began. On 13 August, the German commander relocated the garrison from the fort on the plain to positions partway up Mora mountain. This gave them a commanding view over the surrounding area and easy access to water. Mora mountain, which would become a fortress during the siege, was approximately 30 miles around at its base and 1,700 feet high. German forces prepared for British attack by heavily fortifying their positions on its steep slopes. On the morning of 19 August, German sentries detected around 50 mounted British soldiers near Mora. Captain von Raben and 30 of his soldiers descended from the mountain and, after a firefight, forced the British to retreat. The German commander then ordered the destruction of the fort at Sava, to prevent its use by the Allies. British scouts continued to harass German forces in the region. On 20 August, upon receiving orders to attack Mora from Colonel C. H. P. Carter, Captain Fox sent his forces marching towards the town. They arrived on 26 August and occupied positions at Sava, about three kilometers from the German defenses on the mountain. They were joined by 16 French soldiers from French Equatorial Africa. The Allied position was on the road between Mora and Garua, thus preventing any contact between the two German garrisons. On the night of 27 August, Captain Fox led a detachment of French and British troops to the very top of Mora mountain, in hopes of attacking the German trenches from above. When morning came the Allied forces began to fire down into the German trenches, but found they were beyond effective range. The Allied detachment was then counter-attacked by the Germans, who forced them to retreat back down the mountain.

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    German troops had got well behind the right flank and fired at every sign of movement, forcing the Australians to withdraw along the communication trench dug overnight. By 9:00 a.m. the remnants of the 53rd, 54th and 55th Battalions had returned; many wounded were rescued but only four of the machine-guns were recovered. Artillery-fire from both sides diminished and work began on either side of no man's land to repair defences; a short truce was arranged by the Germans and Australians to recover their wounded. Air operations From 14 July the road from Illies to Beaucamps, 3 miles (4.8 km) behind the German front line was kept under air observation. On 16 July 16 Squadron joined 10 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps (RFC) on the attack front along with a kite balloon section, bringing the I Brigade squadrons of the RFC in support of the attack up to three corps squadrons and two army squadrons.

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    The advance was made in three stages, with an hour to consolidate behind standing and smoke barrages, at the first and intermediate objectives. The rain stopped at midnight and the attack began at 5:20 a.m. On the right, German machine-guns at Olga Farm caused many casualties and a delay but the first objective was reached on time. The surviving troops advanced on Condé House by rushes from shell-holes and took 200 prisoners when they reached it. Fire from two German pillboxes stopped the advance and a German counter-attack began from the pillboxes. German infantry attacked in eight waves and the British engaged them with rifle and machine-gun fire. At 8:55 a.m., the barrage for the advance to the third (final) objective began and smothered the remaining German infantry; German resistance collapsed and the final objective was reached at 10:00 a.m. The left brigade advanced to the right of Bear Copse, which was specially bombarded by Stokes mortars, which induced the German garrison to surrender. The Broembeek was crossed by the Newfoundland battalion, which advanced up the Ypres–Staden railway, captured German dugouts in the embankment and reached the first objective on time. The advance to the second objective found much reduced German resistance and the final objective 700 yd (640 m) further on was reached. A counter-attack was defeated at noon and then a retirement of 200 yd (180 m) was made, in the face of another counter-attack later in the afternoon but German infantry left the area vacant. The Guards Division was to cross the Broembeek and close up to Houthoulst Forest, on a front from the Ypres–Staden railway, to the junction with the French army near Craonne Farm. Before the attack 355 mats, 180 footbridges and enough wire to cover 3,000 yd (2,700 m) of front was carried forward by the pioneer battalion; much digging was done but the rain destroyed trenches as they were built. The two attacking brigades moved up late on 7 October in torrential rain, which stopped at midnight on 8/9 October and the morning dawned fine with a drying wind. The barrage came down prompt at 5:30 a.m. and after four minutes began to creep forward at a rate of 100 yd (91 m) in eight minutes. Crossing the Broembeek was easier than expected, as the German infantry nearby surrendered readily.

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    A 400 yd (370 m) length of Stormy Trench was attacked, by part of a battalion of the 2nd Australian Division late on 1 February, which took the left-hand section and bombed down it to take the rest, before being forced out by a German counter-attack at 4:00 a.m. The Australians attacked again on the night of 4 February, with a battalion and an attached company, with more artillery support and a stock of 12,000 grenades, since the first attack had been defeated when they ran out. The attack succeeded and a German counter-attack was repulsed after a long bombing-fight, although the Australians had more casualties (350–250 men) in the success, than the earlier failed attack. On 8 February, a battalion of the 17th Division attacked part of a trench overlooking Saillisel, after spending three weeks digging assembly trenches in the frozen ground.

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    On 8 August, Bonneau cautiously continued the advance and occupied Mulhouse, shortly after its German defenders had left. the First Army commander General Auguste Dubail preferred to dig in and wait for mobilization of the army to be completed but Joffre ordered the advance to continue. In the early morning of 9 August, parts of the XIV and XV Corps of the German 7th Army arrived from Strasbourg and counter-attacked at Cernay. The German infantry then emerged from the Hardt forest and advanced into the east side of the city. French command broke down and the defenders fought isolated actions before pulling back as best they could, as the German attackers exploited their advantage. Mulhouse was recaptured on 10 August and Bonneau withdrew towards Belfort. Further north, the French XXI Corps made costly attacks on mountain passes and were forced back from Badonviller and Lagarde, where the 6th army took 2,500 French prisoners and eight guns; civilians were accused of attacking German troops and subjected to reprisals.

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    De Witte repulsed the German cavalry attacks by ordering the cavalry, which included a company of cyclists and one of pioneers to fight dismounted and meet the attack with massed rifle fire. Significant casualties were inflicted upon the Germans. The German cavalry had managed to obscure the operations on the German right flank and established a front parallel with Liège and discovered the positions of the Belgian field army but had not been able to penetrate beyond the Belgian front line and discover Belgian dispositions beyond. Although a Belgian victory, the battle had little strategic effect and the Germans later besieged and captured the fortified areas of Namur, Liège and Antwerp, on which Belgian strategy hinged. The German advance was stopped at the Battle of the Yser at the end of October 1914, by which time the Germans had driven Belgian and Allied troops out of most of Belgium and imposed a military government.