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The Meuse valley was a route by which France or Germany could be invaded and after the Franco-Prussian War, General Henri Alexis Brialmont fortified the valley at Liège and Namur, to deter France and Germany from violating Belgian sovereignty. The Fortified Position of Namur (FPN) was built from 1888–1892, about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the centre of Namur, to a standard design of triangular and quadrilateral shapes, to minimize the number of defensive batteries in the fort ditches, with the point facing outwards. On the left bank of the Meuse lay the modernised forts of Fort de Malonne, Fort de Saint-Héribert and Fort de Suarlée, the unmodernised Fort d'Emines and Fort de Cognelée and the modernized Fort de Marchovelette. On the right bank were Fort de Maizeret, Fort d'Andoy and Fort de Dave, all modernized. The obsolete Citadel of Namur in the town became redundant. The forts were built of non-reinforced concrete but this could only be poured in daylight, which caused weak joints between each pour. A citadel was built and covered by 3–4 metres (9.8–13.1 ft) of concrete; caserne walls which were less vulnerable, had concrete of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) thickness, inside a defended ditch 8 metres (26 ft) wide. The entrance had a long access ramp at the rear facing Namur, protected by a tambour with gun embrasures perpendicular to the entry, a rolling drawbridge retracting laterally over a 3.5 metres (11 ft) pit equipped with grenade launchers, an entrance grille and a 57-millimetre (2.2 in) gun firing along the axis of the gate. The forts at Liège and Namur had 171 heavy guns, with each fort equipped with 5–8 Krupp guns of 120-millimetre (4.7 in), 150-millimetre (5.9 in) and 210-millimetre (8.3 in) calibre, which were the most modern armaments available in 1888, mounted in retractable armoured steel turrets made in France, Belgium and Germany. Three smaller retractable turrets were built in the triangular forts and four in the quadrilateral forts, with 57-millimetre (2.2 in) guns for short-range defence and 6–9 more 57-millimetre (2.2 in) guns were mounted in casemates to defend the ditches.

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  • 回答No.1

ムーズ谷は、フランスまたはドイツが侵略できたことによるとフランスとドイツがベルギーの主権に違反することを阻止するためにリエージュとナミュールで普仏戦争、一般アンリアレクシスブリアルモンが谷を強化した後のルートでした。ナミュール(FPN)の強化ポジションは、外へ直面しているポイントでとりで溝の防御用のバッテリーの数を最小化するために、ナミュールのセンターから三角および四辺の形の標準のデザインに1888--1892、約7キロメートル(4.3マイル)で造られていました。 ムーズの左の銀行には、フォートde Malonne、フォートde聖人ヘリベルトフォートde Suarlee、未現代化であったフォートd'Eminesとフォートde Cogneleeおよび現代化されたフォートde Marchoveletteの現代化されたとりでを置いてください。フォートde Maizeret、フォートd'Andoyとフォートdeデイブ、すべて現代化されることが、右の銀行にありました。町のナミュールの時代遅れの要塞は冗長になりました。 とりでは、不補強であったコンクリートで造られていたけれども、これは日光に注ぎ入れられえただけです。それを、起こされた弱いジョイントそれぞれは間の時に注ぎます。要塞は3--で4メートル(9建てられて、カバーされました。コンクリートの8--13.1 ft);それほど脆弱ではなかった兵舎壁、幅8メートルの防御された溝(26ft)の中で催されます 1.5メートル(4.9ft)厚さのコンクリート 。入口が、後ろ直面ナミュール〈入力と直角な銃朝顔形で太鼓により保護された〉の長いアクセスランプを持っていたこと 手榴弾カタパルトを装備される3.5メートル(11ft)ピットの上で側面で撤回する転がっているはね橋 ゲートの軸に沿って点火する入口格子、および57ミリメートル(中の2.2 )銃。 リエージュとナミュールのとりでは、5--を装備される個々のとりで 120ミリメートル(中の4.7 )の8丁のクルップ銃 によって171丁の重い銃を150ミリメートル(中の5.9 )および210ミリメートル(8持っていました。1888年に入手可能な最も現代的な軍備であり、フランス、ベルギー、およびドイツで作られた引き込み可能な装甲されたスチールタレットにおいて高まった3 in)口径。3つのより小さな引き込み可能な小塔が、三角 、、、最後がちょっとわかりません、、笑

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  • 回答No.3
  • Nakay702
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>The Meuse valley was a route by which France or Germany could be invaded and after the Franco-Prussian War, General Henri Alexis Brialmont fortified the valley at Liège and Namur, to deter France and Germany from violating Belgian sovereignty. The Fortified Position of Namur (FPN) was built from 1888–1892, about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the centre of Namur, to a standard design of triangular and quadrilateral shapes, to minimize the number of defensive batteries in the fort ditches, with the point facing outwards. ⇒ミューズ渓谷は、フランス軍やドイツ軍が侵略するような場合に通るルートで、普仏戦争後、フランスやドイツがべルギーの主権を侵害しないように、アンリ・アレクシス・ブリアモン将軍がリエージュとナムールの渓谷を要塞化した。ナムールの要塞陣地(FPN)は、1888年-1892年にかけてナムール本拠から7キロ(4.3マイル)にわたって建造されたが、それは掘割内の守備隊の人数を少なくするように、標準的な三角形や四角形の形状にした。 >On the left bank of the Meuse lay the modernised forts of Fort de Malonne, Fort de Saint-Héribert and Fort de Suarlée, the unmodernised Fort d'Emines and Fort de Cognelée and the modernized Fort de Marchovelette. On the right bank were Fort de Maizeret, Fort d'Andoy and Fort de Dave, all modernized. The obsolete Citadel of Namur in the town became redundant. ⇒ミューズ川左岸に沿って、近代化されたマロヌ要塞、サン・エリベール要塞、ソレー要塞、近代化されていないデミヌ要塞、コニェレー要塞、近代化されたマルショヴレット要塞などが立ち並んでいた。右岸にはメズレ要塞、ダンドイ要塞、ダヴ要塞があり、すべてが近代化されていた。ナミューの街中にある時代遅れの城砦は不要になった。 >The forts were built of non-reinforced concrete but this could only be poured in daylight, which caused weak joints between each pour. A citadel was built and covered by 3–4 metres (9.8–13.1 ft) of concrete; caserne walls which were less vulnerable, had concrete of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) thickness, inside a defended ditch 8 metres (26 ft) wide. The entrance had a long access ramp at the rear facing Namur, protected by a tambour with gun embrasures perpendicular to the entry, a rolling drawbridge retracting laterally over a 3.5 metres (11 ft) pit equipped with grenade launchers, an entrance grille and a 57-millimetre (2.2 in) gun firing along the axis of the gate. ⇒要塞は非鉄骨コンクリート造りで、昼間しか注入できなかったので、各回の注入分と注入分同士の接続が弱かった。城壁は3-4メートル(9.8-13.1フィート)の厚さのコンクリートで覆われた。攻撃に晒されにくい兵舎の壁は1.5メートル(4.9フィート)の厚みのコンクリートで、幅8メートル(26フィート)の掘割内に守られていた。入口は長い傾斜路を持ち、ナミュールを背にしており、入口を垂直に見下ろすはざま銃眼、手榴弾発射機を備え、3.5メートル(11フィート)の壕にかかった可動式はね橋、入口の格子、門の軸柱に沿って並ぶ57ミリ(2.2インチ)の砲列などによって守られていた。 >The forts at Liège and Namur had 171 heavy guns, with each fort equipped with 5–8 Krupp guns of 120-millimetre (4.7 in), 150-millimetre (5.9 in) and 210-millimetre (8.3 in) calibre, which were the most modern armaments available in 1888, mounted in retractable armoured steel turrets made in France, Belgium and Germany. Three smaller retractable turrets were built in the triangular forts and four in the quadrilateral forts, with 57-millimetre (2.2 in) guns for short-range defence and 6–9 more 57-millimetre (2.2 in) guns were mounted in casemates to defend the ditches. ⇒リエージュとナミュールの要塞には、171門の重機関銃があり、各要塞には口径120ミリ(4.7インチ)、150ミリ(5.9インチ)、210ミリ(8.3インチ)のクルップ砲5-8門が装備された。これは1888年では最も近代的な兵器で、フランス、ベルギー、ドイツで作られた格納式装甲砲塔に据えられた。3基の小型格納式砲塔が三角形の要塞に、4基が四角形の要塞に設置され、それに短距離防御用の57ミリ(2.2インチ)砲が装備され、掘割を防護するため6-9門の57ミリ(2.2インチ)砲が砲塔上に乗せられた。

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  • 回答No.2

ミューズ渓谷はフランスまたはドイツが侵略する際に通過する場所で、普仏戦争後、ヘンリー・アレクシス・ブリアモン将軍によって、フランスやドイツがべルギーの主権を侵害しないようにリエージュとナムーの渓谷が要塞化された。 ナムーの要塞拠点は(FPN)は1888年~92年にかけてナムーを中心に7キロメートル(4.3マイル)にわたって築城され、その形状は標準的な三角形や四角形をして外部に面しており、内側の壕にいる守備大隊の人数を少なくするようになっていた。 ミューズの左の土手に沿って、近代化されたマリニー要塞、サン・ヘルベルト要塞、ソーリー要塞が並び、近代化されていないエミネ要塞、コグニー要塞が続き、近代化されたマルショーベレット要塞があった。 メイゼル要塞の右の土手には、アンドロイ要塞、ダヴ要塞があり全て近代化されていた。 街にあるナミューの時代遅れの城壁は不要のものとなった。 要塞群は非鉄筋コンクリート造りで、日中にだけコンクリートを打ち込めたので、コンクリート同士の接続は弱かった。城壁は3-4メートル(9.8-13.1フィート)の厚さのコンクリートで覆われた。攻撃を受けにくい兵舎の壁は1.5メートル(4.9フィート)厚のコンクリートで、幅8メートル(26フィート)の壕で守られていた。 入り口は長い前庭を持ち、背後はナミュールに面しており、入り口を垂直に見下ろす銃眼や、手榴弾発射機を備え3.5メートルの壕にかかった可動式はね橋や、入り口の格子や、門に沿って並ぶ57ミリ(2.2インチ)の砲列によって守られていた。 リエージュとナミュー要塞には、171門の重機関銃があり、各要塞は5~8門の口径120ミリ(4.7インチ)、150ミリ(5.9インチ)や210ミリ(8.3インチ)クルップ砲が装備された。これは1888年以来最も近代的な兵器で、フランス、ベルギー、ドイツで作られた装甲砲塔に据えられた。 3種類の小型の格納式砲塔が三角形の要塞及び4基の四角形の要塞に作られて、短距離の防御用に57ミリ(2.2インチ)砲が装備され、壕を防御するため砲塔上に6~9門の57ミリ(2.2インチ)砲が設置された。

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