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This study was designed to discern whether reluctance to waste, perceived progress, or both explanations jointly are responsible for observed endowed progress effects. Method Subjects. Participants were 146 undergraduate business students at a major West Coast university who participated in this along with several other studies for course credit. Stimuli and Design. The design was a 2 (progress: onethird or one-sixth complete)#2 (endowment value: $12.50 or $30.00) between-subjects, full-factorial design with a separate control condition. To disentangle the competing explanations of wasted investment versus perceived progress, our design specifies a dollar value for the endowed progress. Participants in this study completed a scenario-based, paper-and-pencil study. The study explained that a popular restaurant on campus was considering instituting a frequent buyer program. This study captures the essential decision making that likely occurs when consumers are confronted with enrolling in a frequency program, whether it requires signing up or just keeping the loyalty card in one’s wallet. In the control surveys, customers had to purchases 10 lunches in order to earn a free lunch of identical value. Customers had not yet made any purchases, such that there was no progress toward their goal, real or perceived. There were four such scenarios that differed only in the required cost of each purchase ($2.50, $6.00, $6.25, or $15.00). These studies provided a baseline measure. In the four scenarios that comprised the test conditions or cells, the amount of purchases required, the size of the endowment, and the cost of each purchase were each varied in order to manipulate perceived progress and endowment value simultaneously. In two scenarios, participants were told that because they were first-time patrons they would receive two of 12 credits toward the reward (each credit worth the equivalent of one purchase in dollars), and, in the other two scenarios, they were told they would receive five of 15 credits, such that they were endowed with progress of one-sixth or one-third, respectively. These endowments manipulate the fraction of the task yet to complete; in the former, five-sixths must still be completed, and in the latter, only four-sixths remain. The dollar amount of a purchase varied and was crossed such that the total dollar value of the endowment was either $12.50 or $30.00 (5#$2.50 p 2#$6.25 p $12.50, 5#$6.00 p 2#$15.00 p $30.00). See table 1 for a detailed summary of the design. Respondents were then asked how likely they would be to register for the program, how attractive they thought the program would be to diners, and how likely they would be to earn the reward on a nine-point scale. These measures served as the dependent variable.


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あなたがこの文章を訳すのに、どのような点が問題なのですか? Weblioという自動翻訳のサイトがあります。翻訳の結果に満足できない場合はプロに頼める仕組みです。この文章は単語数 467単語、見積り概算 約¥4670 だそうです。翻訳料金としては安いです。 自動翻訳の結果は以下の通りです。 この研究は、無駄か、認められた進展か両方の説明への抵抗が共同で観察された資産を贈与された進展効果の原因となるかどうか理解するようになっていました。 方法 主題。 参加者は、コース信用のためにいくつかの他の研究とともにこれに参加した主要な西海岸大学の146人の学部のビジネス学生でした。 刺激とデザイン。 デザインは、2でした(進展: onethirdまたは完全な6分の1)#2(養老価値: 12.50ドルまたは30.00ドル)、主題の間で、完全な階乗は、別々の支配状態で設計します。 無駄になる投資対認められた進展の競争している説明のもつれを解くために、我々のデザインは、資産を贈与された進展のために1ドルの価値を指定します。 この研究の参加者は、シナリオ・ベースの、紙と鉛筆研究を完了しました。 キャンパスの人気のレストランが上得意プログラムを開始することを考えていると、研究は説明しました。 それが登録するか、ちょうど忠誠カードをその人の財布に保つことを必要とするかどうかにかかわらず、消費者が頻度プログラムに参加することに直面しているとき、たぶん起こる重要な意思決定を、この研究は捕えます。 基準測量において、顧客は、同一の価値のサービスランチを得るために、購入品に10の昼食をとりました。 彼らのゴールへの前進がなかったように、顧客はまだ少しの購入品も本当であるか認められるようにしませんでした。 各々の購入(2.50ドル、6.00ドル、6.25ドルまたは15.00ドル)の必須の費用においてだけ異なったそのような4つのシナリオが、ありました。 これらの研究は、基本的な処置を提供しました。 テスト状況または細胞から成った4つのシナリオでは、必要とされる購入品の量、寄贈のサイズと各々の購入の費用各々は、同時に認められた進展と養老価値を操るために変化しました。 2つのシナリオでは、彼らが初めての後援者であったので、彼らが報酬(ドルの1つの購入相当の価値がある各々の信用)の方へ12の残高のうちの2つを受領すると、参加者は話されました、そして、その他の2つのシナリオにおいて、それぞれ、6分の1または3分の1の進展を授けられたように、彼らは15の残高のうちの5つを受領すると話されました。 これらの寄贈は、まだ完了する仕事の分数を操ります; 前者において、6分の5はまだ完了しなければなりません、そして、後者において、わずか6分の4は残ります。 寄贈の全体のドル価格が12.50ドルか30.00ドル(5#$2.50 p 2#$6.25 p 12.50ドル、5#$6.00 p 2#$15.00 p 30.00ドル)であったように、購入のドル量は異なって、横切られました。 デザインの詳細な概要については、テーブル1を見てください。 それから、回答者は、彼らがどれくらいプログラムのために登録しそうか、彼らがプログラムが食堂にどれくらい魅力的であると思ったか、そして、彼らがどれくらい9ポイントのスケールで報酬をかせぎそうか尋ねられました。 これらの処置は、従属変数として用いられました。



  • 和訳をよろしくお願いします

    Customers had not yet made any purchases, such that there was no progress toward their goal, real or perceived. There were four such scenarios that differed only in the required cost of each purchase

  • 和訳をよろしくお願いします

    This study was designed to discern whether reluctance to waste, perceived progress, or both explanations jointly are responsible for observed endowed progress effects.

  • 和訳をよろしくお願いします

    The design was a 2 (progress: one third or one-sixth complete)×2 (endowment value: $12.50 or $30.00) between-subjects, full-factorial design with a separate control condition. To disentangle the competing explanations of wasted investment versus perceived progress, our design specifies a dollar value for the endowed progress.

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    I started studying Japanese language in 1974, in a Tokyo university with many other foreign students. Although the tests and lessons were well-designed, I was soon quite frustrated and dissatisfied with my progress in that situation. Most of my classmates were also non-Japanese, so the dangerous tendency was to speak in English or French outside of classes. Except for the small number who wanted to "brush up their English," the normal Japanese students refused to associate with the illiterate foreigners. I soon found that I had gravitated to a small group of Koreans and Hawaiians, who agreed to speak only in Japanese. However, I felt that my Japanese was not likely to improve much without native speakers as models. I was depressed by the number of Americans concerned only with obtaining as much money, sex, marijuana, or media-coverage as they could obtain during their year in Japan, rather than really trying to appreciate the culture in which they were guests. So I began to look around for a more isolated university which would admit and teach Japanese to foreigners, but without the problems of Tokyo's "international set."

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    Three battalions of the 1st South African Brigade were to attack Delville Wood, while the 1st Battalion continued as a reinforcement of the 26th and 27th brigades in Longueval. The attack at 5:00 p.m. was postponed to 7:00 p.m. and then to 5:00 a.m. on 15 July, due to the slow progress in Longueval. Brigadier-General Henry Lukin was ordered to take the wood at all costs and that his advance was to proceed, even if the 26th and 27th Brigades had not captured the north end of the village.

  • 英語の和訳お願いします。

    ''It was the best of times, it was the worst of times." The Victorian age was one of soaring ambition, technological wonder, and awesome grandeur, as well as ugliness, and misery on an unprecended scale. The Victorians knew life was changing faster than ever before, and they recorded that change in paintings that were the cinema of their day. These paintings aren't fashionable, and they don't generally change hands for millions of pounds in auction rooms, but to me they're a gold mine, they show us like nothing else what it was like to live in those incredible times, and they tell amazing stories. The most dramatic story of the age was the explosion of giant cities. To our Victorian forefathers they were a terrific shock. When Queen Victoria came to the throne, people were at best uneasy at, and at worst utterly terrified by these vast gatherings of humanity. Nothing like them had existed before. But by the time she died, the men and women of the age had pioneered an entirely new way of living: they had invented the modern city. At the dawn of the 19th century, Britain was on the move. Rumours had reached even the remotest villages and hamlets of incredible developments just over the horizon. Towns bigger than anyone could imagine, astouding new machines, and money to be made for those ready to take the risk. My own great-great-great-grandfather was in that tide of humanity that left the land in search of a better life. He, his wife and four of their children travelled to the industrial north by barge. They didn't really know what they'd find here, but they did know what they were leaving behind, and whatever they were to find here, it was better than begging for handouts or going hungry.

  • 和訳お願いします!!

    自分でやったりアプリでやると日本語がおかしくなるのできれいな日本語に訳せる方よろしくお願いします!! On June 17, 1966, two black men entered a bar and grill in New Jersey, and started shooting . The bartender and one customer died instantly . Another customer died almost a month later, as a result of her wounds. A third customer survived, though he lost the use of one eye . Soon after the crime, the police stopped Rubin's car. Rubin and a friend of his were taken to the bar and grill and made to stand against the wall while their car was searched . The police then took them to the hospital and showed them to one of the victims, who said they had not been the shooters . Rubin and his friend were then taken to the police station, where they were questioned for sixteen hours. They both took lie detector tests, and were released. However, by october, the police had found witnesses who said they saw Rubin and his friend running away from the bar and grill just after the crime. One of the witnesses was Alfred Bello, an ex-convict, who had himself been questioned about the crime. The surviving customer, Willie Marins, had changed his story, and now seemed to think that Rubin and his friend were the criminals. When the case came to court, it soon became clear that everything depended on the testimony of these two witnesses. There was no fingerprint evidence, and no scientific proof that Rubin and his friend had recently fired weapons. Some ammunition was found in Rubin's car, which was similar to that used in the shooting. Marins' descriptions of the two men were vague, but Bello's testimony was damning. He said that he heard shots, and then saw Rubin and his friend leave the bar laughing, one carrying a shotgun and the other a handgun. Bello admitted that he himself went into the bar to take money out of the cash register. In spite of this, the all-white jury believed him - in less than two hours, they convicted Rubin and his friend of murder.

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    When Lusitania was built, her construction and operating expenses were subsidised by the British government, with the proviso that she could be converted to an armed merchant cruiser (AMC) if need be. A secret compartment was designed in for the purpose of carrying arms and ammunition. When war was declared she was requisitioned by the British Admiralty as an armed merchant cruiser, and she was put on the official list of AMCs. Lusitania remained on the official AMC list and was listed as an auxiliary cruiser in the 1914 edition of Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships, along with Mauretania. The Declaration of Paris codified the rules for naval engagements involving civilian vessels. The so-called Cruiser Rules required that the crew and passengers of civilian ships be safeguarded in the event that the ship is to be confiscated or sunk. These rules also placed some onus on the ship itself, in that the merchant ship had to be flying its own flag, and not pretending to be of a different nationality. Also, it had to stop when confronted and allow itself to be boarded and searched, and it was not allowed to be armed or to take any hostile or evasive actions. When war was declared, British merchant ships were given orders to ram submarines that surfaced to issue the warnings required by the Cruiser Rules. At the outbreak of hostilities, fears for the safety of Lusitania and other great liners ran high. During the ship's first east-bound crossing after the war started, she was painted in a grey colour scheme in an attempt to mask her identity and make her more difficult to detect visually. Many of the large liners were laid up in 1914–1915, in part due to falling demand for passenger travel across the Atlantic, and in part to protect them from damage due to mines or other dangers. Among the most recognisable of these liners, some were eventually used as troop transports, while others became hospital ships. Lusitania remained in commercial service; although bookings aboard her were by no means strong during that autumn and winter, demand was strong enough to keep her in civilian service. Economising measures were taken. One of these was the shutting down of her No. 4 boiler room to conserve coal and crew costs; this reduced her maximum speed from over 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph) to 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph). With apparent dangers evaporating, the ship's disguised paint scheme was also dropped and she was returned to civilian colours. Her name was picked out in gilt, her funnels were repainted in their traditional Cunard livery, and her superstructure was painted white again. One alteration was the addition of a bronze/gold coloured band around the base of the superstructure just above the black paint.

  • 長文の和訳 お願いします

    長文の和訳 お願いします a lot of young people became victims of the battle of ofokinawa. some of the most well known are the girls in the himeyuri student corps. their story has been told in movies and books. Student corps were units that the japanese army created for the battle of okinawa. the himeyuri corpy was made of students and teachers from the okinawa first girl's high school and the female division of the okinawa normal school. in decembar 1944, the japanese military felt that it was impossible to prevent the Americans from landing in okinawa. they organized some studebt corps to help wounded soldiers. at the end of march 1945, the himeyuri students were sent to the army field hospital in haebaru . this was just a few days before the americans landede. the himeyuri corps was formed of 240 members : 222 were students from ages 15 to 19 , and 18 were teachers. they were so busy taking care of wounded soldiers that they didn't even have time to sleep. the war situation got worse. in late may, the himeyuri corps retreated to the south. the last fierce battle of the battle of okinawa was fought in the southern part of okinawa island. when the japanese military knew they were losing he battle, they ordered the himeyuri corps to disband. on june 18 , the girls were thrown out onto the battlefield. more than one hundred of the himeyuri students sent to the battlefield lost their lives. the name "himeyuri" sounds peaceful , but the reality they had to face was far from peace. we must never forget the tragedy of the himeyuri student corps.

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    Our narrative is still in the midest of the brilliant that were exciting interest during the early part of 1880,when Edison,harnessed to his work,was making rapid progress in commercialy perfecting his lamp. At that time Brush,Thomson,Houston and Weston were busy with their arc light system and none had faith in the little lamp that Edison had given to the world. That their disbelief was in error how well we now know! For the little lamp of high resistance that began to cast its glow in that day has kept on glowing everywhere, as does also the spirit of Edison its inventor. Our busy activities during that development period were now and then interrupted by some merry interlude.Occasionally the 'boys'played jokes on each other.Sometimes one of them who had become tried would seek a nap on a near-by table.While no one objected to a peaceful slumber,if the delinquent began to snore or attempted to imitate the chords of rhapsodies such as we now and then hear on the radio, things happened.Somebody would crash a heavy weight on the table;that stopped the snoring.As an alternative the snorer was sometimes treated to a whiff of concentrared spirits of ammonia which,too,was effective.