• ベストアンサー
  • 困ってます

以下の英文を日本語訳して下さい。

By about 1800, Tokugawa administration at its topmost level had evolved into an elaborate coalition of different interests. These interests retained their separate identities, and important ties between them were frequently familial and tacit, rather than formal and institutional. The antagonisms that had once held sway were now little more than inherited memories, and there was a general acceptance of the existing regime for the sake of the rewards it conferred on court noble and daimyo as well as shogun, on senior cleric and clan elder as well as Tokugawa retainer. Beneath this pattern of government by a coalescence of elites lay the pluralistic structure of the baku-han system, with its diversification of administrative authority into one seminational and numerous local and autonomous power centers.

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数299
  • ありがとう数1

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率81% (7377/9099)

以下のとおりお答えします。(これから出かけるために急いで訳しましたので、間違いがあるかも知れません。もし誤訳等が見つかりましたら再伸いたします。) >By about 1800, Tokugawa administration at its topmost level had evolved into an elaborate coalition of different interests. These interests retained their separate identities, and important ties between them were frequently familial and tacit, rather than formal and institutional. ⇒1800年ころまでには、徳川の最高層に対する管理は種々の関心事を具合よく組み合わせた形に進化した。この関心は、彼らの個々別々の自己同一性を内包保持し、彼ら相互間の重要なつながりはしばしば形式的・制度的であるというむしろ家族的で暗黙の了解事項であった。 >The antagonisms that had once held sway were now little more than inherited memories, and there was a general acceptance of the existing regime for the sake of the rewards it conferred on court noble and daimyo as well as shogun, on senior cleric and clan elder as well as Tokugawa retainer. ⇒かつて吹き荒れて心に抱いたあの敵意は今や引き継がれた記憶がほとんどなくなり、将軍だけでなく朝廷に授与された報酬や、徳川家臣だけでなく大僧正や氏族長に授与された報酬(の保持)のために既成の政体を受容・容認する風が一般にあった。 >Beneath this pattern of government by a coalescence of elites lay the pluralistic structure of the baku-han system, with its diversification of administrative authority into one seminational and numerous local and autonomous power centers. ⇒精鋭たちの融合・合体による政府のこの基本陣形の下に、半ば全国的な管理権限の単一化と数々の地方自治の権力中枢機構、こういった多角性を抱えるという幕藩体制の複数性の構造が横たわっていた。 以上、ご回答まで。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

回答有難うございました。

関連するQ&A

  • 以下の英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    For the later period, ‘’baku-han system’’ is a more accurate description. This development was facilitated by the seventeenth-century switch from force to moral persuasion association of all the daimyo, not just a section of them, with the and a general softening of traditional attitudes. From Ieyasu’s time, the great majority of daimyo had been divided into two classes: fudai and tozama. The former were literally the ‘’hereditary vassal lords,’’ the successive heads of families which were already Tokugawa vassals before the fateful battle of Sekigahara. The tozama, by contrast, were the ‘’outside lords,’’ whose ancestors had been Ieyasu’s peers in 1600 and had only sworn allegiance to him after his victory. Fudai han were usually small, but they were strategically placed around the Kanto plain, along anaxis to the Kinai district, in Kinai itself, and on the borders of large tozama han.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    All of the units suffered from lack of equipment, including ammunition. There was a shortage of capable officers, and only 120 machine guns in the whole army. The army possessed no field howitzers or heavy artillery. In terms of appearance, the dark-blue uniforms and personal equipment issued to soldiers in 1914 had not changed visibly since 1853.[9] Standards of discipline were frequently lax and Belgian soldiers were often seen as "indisciplined and careless".[9] The army had no coherent doctrine and its had as many as five strategic plans, none of which commanded total support from the High Command. The Belgian army was divided into two, with the majority assigned to the Field Army and lower-quality troops to guard the country's three fortified zones.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    On April 24, Interior minister Mehmed Talat passed the order of April 24 (known by the Armenians as the Red Sunday), claimed that the Armenians in this region organized under the leadership of Russians and rebelled against his government, as they had shown in their securing of Van for Armenian nationalists. The Armenians of the Van Resistance and others which were under the Russian occupation were spared from these arrests, since they had rebelled.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Still, the terms were largely pro-British and close to an outright surrender; the Ottoman Empire ceded the rights to the Allies to occupy "in case of disorder" any Ottoman territory, a vague and broad clause. The French were displeased with the precedent; French Premier Georges Clemenceau disliked the British making unilateral decisions in so important a matter. Lloyd George countered that the French had concluded a similar armistice on short notice in the Armistice of Salonica, which had been negotiated by French General d'Esperey and that Great Britain (and Tsarist Russia) had committed the vast majority of troops to the campaign against the Ottoman Empire. The French agreed to accept the matter as closed. The Ottoman educated public, however, was given misleadingly positive impressions of the severity of the terms of the Armistice. They thought its terms were considerably more lenient than they actually were, a source of discontent later when it seemed that the Allies had violated the offered terms during the Turkish War of Independence. Aftermath The Armistice of Mudros officially brought hostilities to an end between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. However, incursions by the Italians and Greeks into Anatolia in the name of "restoring order" soon came close to an outright partition of the country. The Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 officially partitioned the Ottoman Empire into zones of influence; however, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–23) saw the rejection of the treaty by Turkish nationalist forces based in Ankara, who eventually took control of the Anatolian Peninsula. Ottoman territory in Syria, Palestine, and Arabia stayed as distributed by the Treaty of Sèvres while the borders of the Turkish nation-state were set by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had eliminated Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Also known as the Armistice of Compiègne from the place where it was signed, it came into force at 11 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 ("the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month") and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender. The actual terms, largely written by the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German forces to behind the Rhine, Allied occupation of the Rhineland and bridgeheads further east, the preservation of infrastructure, the surrender of aircraft, warships, and military material, the release of Allied prisoners of war and interned civilians, and eventual reparations.

  • 英語の文章の一文について質問です。

    The antagonisms that had once held sway were now little more than inherited memories, and there was a general acceptance of the existing regime for the sake of the rewards it conferred on court noble and daimyo as well as shogun, on senior cleric and clan elder as well as Tokugawa retainer. という英文を かつて吹き荒れて心に抱いたあの敵意は今や引き継がれた記憶がほとんどなくなり、将軍だけでなく朝廷に授与された報酬や徳川家の家臣だけでなく大僧正や氏族長に授与された報酬のために既成の政体を受容、容認する風が一般に受けいられていた。 と訳した場合、正確な和訳と言えますか?ここでは、 there was a general acceptance of,,, 「~が一般に受け入れられていた」 Tokugawa retainer  「徳川家の家臣」 と和訳しています。

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Civilians, including children, aided in the effort as well, as "Carts drawn by oxen, water buffalo, and cows jammed the roads bringing food, provisions, ammunition, and volunteers from the vicinity" of Yerevan. Acting under Minister of War Enver Pasha's request, Miralay (Colonel) Kâzım Karabekir Bey's I Caucasian Corps and Mirliva Yakub Shevki Pasha's II Caucasian Corps put into action in the direction of Karakilisa (modern-day Vanadzor), Sardarabad, Tiflis (modern-day Tbilisi) and Yerevan on 20 May. While Karakilisa was selected as their main target, Tiflis and Yerevan were to be kept under pressure. The operations of the southern flank were given to the I Caucasian Corps and the task of capturing Karakilisa was given to the II Caucasian Corps. The Ottoman force reached Karakilisa on May 20 without resistance. Only a single combat action took place near the village of Karzakh. The detachment commanded by Zihni Bey, that advanced forward in Sardarabad area, reached the station of Alagöz (modern-day Aragats) and line of Mahtaka. On May 21, the detachment of Zihni Bey defeated an Armenian unit composed of 600 infantry and 250 cavalry, and then took Sardarabad. From there, their forces started advancing toward Yeghegnut. Armenian general Movses Silikyan ordered elements of the 5th Armenian Regiment under Poghos Bek-Pirumyan, a reserve guerrilla unit, and a special cavalry regiment to check the advance of the Ottoman army. An offensive was launched on May 22 and the Armenian forces were successful in halting the Ottomans in their tracks and forcing Yakub Shevki Pasha's forces into a general rout (retreating nearly 15-20 kilometers in a westerly direction). The Ottoman command, however, was able to recuperate from its losses and reorganized its forces near the mountain heights on the north-west bank of the Araks river. Repeated attempts to cross the river were met with fierce resistance by the 5th Armenian Regiment. On May 24, several more skirmishes took place between the Armenian and Ottoman forces. However, attempts to dislodge the Ottomans from their well-entrenched positions the following day by Poghos Bek-Pirumyan's and other commanders' forces were met with failure. On May 27, an Armenian force commanded by Colonel Karapet Hasan-Pashayan performed a flanking maneuver and struck the Ottoman positions from the rear while the rest of the Armenian forces pounded the main Ottoman positions.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Samarrah Offensive (March 13 – April 23, 1917) was launched by the British against the Ottomans as part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. After Baghdad fell to the British on March 11, 1917, there were still 10,000 Ottoman troops north of the city, led by Khalil Pasha, who could represent a threat to Anglo-Indian forces. Furthermore, another 15,000 Ottomans under Ali Ihsan Bey were being driven out of Persia by the Russians, and were attempting at joining Khalil's forces in northern Iraq. The British commander, Frederick Stanley Maude, decided that, in order to avert these threats, he had to take control of the Samarrah railroad, running 130 km (81 mi) north of Baghdad. Operations began on March 13, carried forth by 45,000 British troops. On March 19, they conquered Fallujah, a crucial step toward the offensive's goal. The British continued their attacks until April 23, when the town of Samarrah and its railroad fell into their hands. Although it achieved its aims, the Samarrah offensive cost the British about 18,000 casualties, a considerable price (plus another 38,000 who were taken ill).

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Captain Caulfeild ordered the harbor swept for mines during 2 November and well into the next day. During the sweeping, the Force "B" commander, Aitken, began the unopposed landing of troops and supplies in two groups at the harbor and three miles east of the city on a mine-free beach. By evening on 3 November, the invasion force was ashore with the exception of the 27th Mountain Battery and the Faridkot Sappers. At noon on 4 November, Aitken ordered his troops to march on the city. Well concealed defenders quickly broke up their advance. The fighting then turned to jungle skirmishing by the southern contingent and bitter street-fighting by the harbor force. The Gurkhas of the Kashmiri Rifles and the 2nd Loyal North Lancashire Regiment of the harbour contingent made good progress; they entered the town, captured the customs house, and Hotel Deutscher Kaiser and ran up the Union Jack. But then the advance was stopped. Less-well trained and equipped Indian battalions of the 27th (Bangalore) Brigade scattered and ran away from the battle. The 98th Infantry were attacked by swarms of angry bees and broke up. The bees attacked the Germans as well, hence the battle's nickname. British propaganda transformed the bee interlude into a fiendish German plot, conjuring up hidden trip wires to agitate the hives. The 13th Rajputs failed to play a significant role in the battle as their morale had been shaken when witnessing the retreat of the 63rd Palamcottah Light Infantry. Dead Indian soldiers of the British force on the beach at Tanga The colonial volunteers of the 7th and 8th Schützenkompanien [rifle companies] arrived by rail to stiffen the pressed Askari lines. The normally mounted 8th Schützenkompanie had left their horses at Neu Moshi. By late afternoon on 4 November, Lettow-Vorbeck ordered his last reserves, the 13th and 4th Askari Feldkompanien (field companies) – the 4th had just reached Tanga by train), to envelop the British flank and rear by launching bayonet attacks along the entire front to “bugle calls and piercing tribal war cries.” At least three battalions of the Imperial Service Brigade would have been wiped out to a man, if they had not taken to their heels. All semblance of order vanished as Force B's retirement “degenerated into total rout.” Still outnumbered eight to one, caution overtook some of the German officers. Through a series of errors by the buglers and misunderstandings by an officer to disengage and consolidate, Askari withdrew to a camp several miles west of Tanga. As soon as Lettow-Vorbeck learned of this, he countermanded the move and ordered a redeployment that was not completed until early morning. “For nearly all of the night [before sunrise 5 November], Tanga was Aitken's for the taking. It was the most stupendous irony of the battle.”

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Malleson ordered his men into a frontal assault on Latema Hill. It was impossible for any diversionary flanking attack to take place due to the denseness of the terrain to the sides of the battlefield, especially to the south - which was covered by a swamp. The Baluchis and 3rd King's African Rifles were sent into the attack - holding the right and left respectively - with the Rhodesian Regiment held in reserve. This was the first action that the 3rd KAR had fought as a unit. The infantry was supported by artillery, which bombarded the German positions from a range of 3,000 yards. Before they could reach the enemy positions, however, the British were forced back by heavy rifle, machine gun and small-calibre artillery fire.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    At the start of 1916, most of the British Army had been an inexperienced and patchily trained mass of volunteers. The Somme was the debut of the Kitchener Army created by Lord Kitchener's call for recruits at the start of the war. The British volunteers were often the fittest, most enthusiastic and best educated citizens but British casualties were also inexperienced soldiers and it has been claimed that their loss was of lesser military significance than the losses of the remaining peace-trained officers and men of the German army. British casualties on the first day were the worst in the history of the British army, with 57,470 British casualties, 19,240 of whom were killed. British survivors of the battle had gained experience and the BEF learned how to conduct the mass industrial warfare, which the continental armies had been fighting since 1914.