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Last year Marks & Spencer — Britain’s mainstay for products like underwear and shortbread — decided to go organic in its food business; it now sells only fair-trade coffee and teas, for example. Many executives regarded the shift as a foolish and risky decision, but the store found that sales jumped 12 percent. The store learned a lesson that executives think will apply to clothes. Part of the problem is that neither manufacturers nor customers understand much about how and when clothing purchases degrade the environment.Significant environmental impact occurs from the harvesting of cotton or the manufacturing of synthetic fibers ;the production , packaging and transportation of the clothes;clothes washing; and drying by the consumer , and disposal.


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  • ddeana
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イギリスでの下着やショートブレッド(※1)といった商品の主力小売業であるマークス&スペンサーは昨年、自身の食品事業で、有機栽培のものを使うことを決定した。例としては、現在「自由貿易による」のコーヒーと紅茶のみを販売している。多くの幹部達がこの方針転換をばかげていてリスクの高い決定だと考えていたが、店の売り上げが12%もアップしたことがわかった。マークス&スペンサーでは幹部達が、衣類についても同じことが応用できるという教訓を得たのだ。 問題のひとつには、製造業者、購入者いずれも被服産業がどれほど環境を劣化させるかについて多くを理解していないことがある。著しい環境影響(※2)は、綿花を収穫することや、合成繊維の製造から発生する。生産、梱包、衣類の輸送でもそうである。加えて消費者による洗濯と乾燥、そして廃棄もそうだ(※3)。 ※1:イギリス人の好きなサクサクとしたスコットランド生まれのビスケット(クッキー)で、気楽に食べられる食品のひとつです。M&Sのショートブレッドは缶入りで、しかもその缶がイギリスの2階建てバスをデザインしたものだったり、限定品だったり何かのイベントにあわせてデザインしたものだったりと人気商品です。余談ですが私も仕事でロンドンに行った際、よくおみやげとして買いました(笑) ※2:environmental impact 環境ISO用語では「環境影響」という訳を採用しています。 http://iso14001ems.info/iso67.html ※3:セミコロン(;)について ここでのセミコロンは下記に出ている使用法の(3)、事項を並べるにあたると考えました。環境影響の原因となるものの列記なので、そのように訳してみました。 http://www.eigo-nikki.com/article/13213998.html




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  • oignies
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大意です イギリスの下着や日用品をあつかうマークス・スペンサー社は、食品事業で自然食品をあつかうこととし、フェア・トレイド製品のコーヒーと紅茶だけをてがけることとした。経営陣のおおくは、これを危険なかけで、愚かしい決定だとかんがえていたが、マルクス・スペンサー社の売り上げは12%増加。経営陣も、衣料品部門にもこれを応用できないかとかんがえるにいたった。 ただ問題があり、衣料品の場合には、生産のどの段階で環境に負荷がかかっているかわかりにくい。綿花の収穫過程なのか、化繊の合成過程なのか、縫合過程か、製品の荷造り、輸送の過程か、消費者による洗濯と乾燥の過程なのか、廃棄の過程なのか、といった問題はつきとめにくい。



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    The report suggests that retailers could begin to lease clothes for a season ーlike wedding stores rent tuxedos for a weekendーor buy back old clothes from customers at a discount, for recycling. But experiments have faltered. A decade ago, Hanna Andersson, an eco-conscious U,S-based clothing company, tried offering mail-order customers 20 percent credit toward new purchases if they sent back their used garments. This “hannadowns” program was canceled after two years as impractical. To cut back on carbons use and make fashion truly sustainable, shoppers will have “to own less, to have less stuff,” Allwood said. “And that is a very hard sell.” Marks & Spencer is thinking about whether its customers will be willing to change their buying habits, to pay more for less-fashionable but “sustainable” garments. After all, consumers have shown a willingness to pay more for clothes not made in sweatshops, and some are unwilling to buy diamonds because of forced labor in African mines.

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    And while many people have grown accustomed to recycling cans, bottles and newspapers, used clothes are generally thrown away. Britons on average discard about 65 pounds , or 30 kilograms, of clothing and textiles a year. Only an eight of that goes to charities for reuse. “In a wealthy society, clothing and textiles are bought as much for fashion as for function,” the report says, and that means that clothes are replaced “before the end of their natural life.” Julian Allwood, who led a team of environmental researchers in conducting the report, noted in an interview that it is now easier for British consumers to toss unwanted clothes than to take them to a recycling center, and easier to throw clothes into the hamper for a quick machine wash and dry than to sponge off stains. He hopes his report will educate shoppers about the costs to the environment, so that they change their behavior. There are many examples of how changing consumer priorities have forced even the most staid retailers to alter the way they do business.

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    On a recent day outside Marks & Spencer on High Street in Guildford , where everyone was loaded with shopping bags, Audrey Mammana, who is 45, said she was not “a throw-away person” and would be happy to lease high-end clothing for a season. She would also be willing to repair old clothes to extend their use, although fewer shops perform this task. But, she added: “If you cut out tumble-drying, I think you’d lose me. I couldn’t do without that.”

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    It is hard to imagine how customers who rush after trends, or the stores that serve them, will respond to the report’s suggestions: that people lease clothes and return them at the end of a month or a season, so the garments can be lent again to someone else — like library books — and that they buy more expensive and durable clothing that can be worn for years. Perhups surprisingly , the report highlights the benefits of synthetic fabrics they require less hot water to wash and less ironing. It suggests that consumers air-dry clothes and throw away their tumble dryers, which require huge amounts of energy.

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    JOSEPHINE COPELAND and her 20-year-old daughter, Jo Jo, visited Primark at the Peacock Center mall here, in the London suburbs, to buy presents for friends, but ended up loaded with clothes for themselves: boots, a cardigan, a festive blouse, and a long silver coat with faux fur trim, which cost £12 but looks like a million bucks. “If it falls apart, you just toss it away!” said Jo Jo, proudly wearing her purchase. Environmentally, that is more and more of a problem. But clothes — and fast clothes in particular — are a large and worsening source of the carbon emissions that contribute to global warming, because of how they are both produced and cared for, concludes a new report from researchers at Cambridge University titled “Well Dressed?”

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    Some large clothing retailers are starting to take notice of the environmental questions and are exploring options. “Our research shows that customers are getting very concerned about environmental issues, and we don’t want to get caught between the eyes,” said Mike Barry, head of corporate social responsibility at Marks & Spencer, one of Britain’s largest retailers, which helped pay for the Cambridge study. Consumers spend more than $1 trillion a year on clothing and textiles, an estimated one-third of that in Western Europe, another third in North America, and about a quarter in Asia. In many places, cheap, readily disposable clothes have displaced hand-me-downs as the mainstay of dressing. The result, women’s clothing sales in Britain rose by 21 percent between 2001 and 2005 alone to about £24 billion ,or $47.6 billion, spurred by lower prices, according to the Cambridge report.

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    The $1 trillion global textile industry must become eco-conscious, the report concludes. It explores how to develop more “sustainable clothing” — a seeming oxymoron in a world where fashions change every few months. “Hmmm,” said Sally Neild, 44, dressed in casual chic, ー jeans and boots, as she pondered the idea , shopping bags in hand. “People now think a lot about green travel and green food. But I think we are a long way from there in terms of clothes. People are mad about those stores.” It is hard to imagine how customers who rush after trends, or the stores that serve them, will respond to the report’s suggestions: that people lease clothes and return them at the end of a month or a season, so the garments can be lent again to someone else — like library books — and that they buy more expensive and durable clothing that can be worn for years.

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    Meanwhile, hot summers could hit power generation as reduced rainfall reduces the supply of water for cooling thermal and nuclear power plants. And, as river flows change, the risk of erosion will increase, bringing with it the prospect that dams for hydropower will silt up. Though warmer temperatures will reduce the amount of energy needed for domestic heating "the risk of power disruptions will raise as summer heat pushes up demand for air conditioning." The study also underlined the global nature of the threat and pointed out that changes on one continent will be felt on others. The worst effects of global warming will be felt in Africa, Latin America and Asia but that "could lead to vast displacement of populations including in regions close to Europe." The document concluded that "each European citizen will be affected one way or another and the widest possible involvement of all members of society is needed."

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    いつも楽しく拝見させて頂いています。 英語の哲学関係の本を読んでいるのですが、どうしてもぴんとこない部分があるので、英訳をお願いできたらと思います。 Now we call that which is in itself worthy of pursuit more final than that which is worthy of pursuit for the sake of something else, and which is never desireble for the sake of something else more final than the things that are desirable both in themselves and for the sake of that other thing, and therefore we call final without qualification that which is always desirable in itself and never for the sake of something else. 内容にずれがなければ、意訳でも結構です。 どうぞよろしくお願い致します。