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It is refreshing to return to the often-echoed remark, that it could not have been the object of a Divine revelation to instruct mankind in physical science, man having had faculties bestowed upon him to enable him to acquire this knowledge by himself. This is in fact pretty generally admitted; but in the application of the doctrine, writers play at fast and loose with it according to circumstances. Thus an inspired writer may be permitted to allude to the phenomena of nature according to the vulgar view of such things, without impeachment of his better knowledge; but if he speaks of the same phenomena assertively, we are bound to suppose that things are as he represents them, however much our knowledge of nature may be disposed to recalcitrate. But if we find a difficulty in admitting that such misrepresentations can find a place in revelation, the difficulty lies in our having previously assumed what a Divine revelation ought to be. If God made use of imperfectly informed men to lay the foundations of that higher knowledge for which the human race was destined, is it wonderful that they should have committed themselves to assertions not in accordance with facts, although they may have believed them to be true? On what grounds has the popular notion of Divine revelation been built up? Is it not plain that the plan of Providence for the education of man is a progressive one, and as imperfect men have been used as the agents for teaching mankind, is it not to be expected that their teachings should be partial and, to some extent, erroneous? Admitted, as it is, that physical science is not what the Hebrew writers, for the most part, profess to convey, at any rate, that it is not on account of the communication of such knowledge that we attach any value to their writings, why should we hesitate to recognise their fallibility on this head?


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以下のとおりお答えします。(最後の段落は、構文がひどく複雑ですので、解読しきれていないかもしれませんが、誤解の節は悪しからずお許しください。) 何度も反復された発言に立ち返ると元気が戻るものです。すなわち、こうです。人間は、独力で物理学知識の獲得を可能にするための能力を己自身に授けていたのですから、その物理学を人類に教えることが神による託宣の目的だったはずはあり得ません。事実これは、かなり一般的に認められています。ただ、教義の適用においては、作家らは、状況に応じてそれを弄んでしまいます。 したがって霊感を受けた作家は、自然の現象について示唆する際、よりよい知識が彼にあってもそれによる非難などなしで、自然現象に対する世俗的見解に従って行う(語る)ことを許されるかもしれません。彼が同じ現象に固執するとすれば、(物事の)事態は彼の表明どおりと想定せざるを得ませんが、しかし私たちとしても、自然に関する知識から大いに反抗したい気分になるかもしれません。そのような誤った発表が発現し得ることを認める際に困難があるとすれば、(事前に)託宣とはどうあるべきかを想定しておいたことにそれ(困難の淵源)があるのです。 もしも、人類が(神によって)予定された高い知識の基礎を築くために、不完全にしか事情に通じていないような人々を神が利用するならば、彼らが真実と考えていたかもしれないにもかかわらずその事実に従わない主張に身を委ねてしまうことは、素晴らしいことでしょうか? 託宣についての一般的な概念は、どういう根拠の上に構築されてきたのでしょうか? 人間教育のための、神意の計画は進歩的なものであるということは明白ではないのでしょうか? また、不完全な人が人類を教えるための代理人として使用されたのであれば、彼らの教えは、部分的で、ある程度まで誤っているはずだと予期されて然るべきではないでしょうか? 物理学は、ヘブライ人作家が何とかして伝えようとしているものではないということや、私たちが何がしかの価値をヘブライ人作家の著述に付与するのはその知識の伝達の説明についてではないと、現にあるがままに認めるならば、私たちはなぜ、この項目に関して彼らの誤り易さを認識することに躊躇しなければならないのでしょうか? 以上、ご回答まで。





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    Or perhaps we should say rather that the dichotomy between primitive and revealed religions is false, for there is a sense in which all religious are religions of revelation; the world around them and their reason have everywhere revealed to people something of the divine, of their own nature and destiny.

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    We may fairly ask,' he argues, of those persons who consider physical science a fit subject for revelation, what point they can imagine short of a communication of Omniscience at which such a revelation might have stopped without imperfections of omission, less in degree, but similar in kind, to that which they impute to the existing narrative of Moses? A revelation of so much only of astronomy as was known to Copernicus would have seemed imperfect after the discoveries of Newton; and a revelation of the science of Newton would have appeared defective to La Place: a revelation of all the chemical knowledge of the eighteenth century would have been as deficient in comparison with the information of the present day, as what is now known in this science will probably appear before the termination of another age; in the whole circle of sciences there is not one to which this argument may not be extended, until we should require from revelation a full development of all the mysterious agencies that uphold the mechanism of the material world.' Buckland's question is quite inapplicable to the real difficulty, which is, not that circumstantial details are omitted -- that might reasonably be expected -- but that what is told, is told so as to convey to ordinary apprehensions an impression at variance with facts. We are indeed told that certain writers of antiquity had already anticipated the hypothesis of the geologist, and two of the Christian fathers, Augustine and Episcopius, are referred to as having actually held that a wide interval elapsed between the first act of creation, mentioned in the Mosaic account, and the commencement of the six days' work. If, however, they arrived at such a conclusion, it was simply because, like the modern geologist, they had theories of their own to support, which led them to make somewhat similar hypotheses.

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    It would have been well if theologians had made up their minds to accept frankly the principle that those things for the eiscovery of which man has faculties specially provided are not fit objects of a divine revelation. Had this been unhesitangly done, either the definition and idea of divine revelation must have been modified and the possibly of an admixture of error[must] have been allowed,or such parts of the Hebrew writings as were found to be repugnant to fact must have been pronounced to form no part of revelation. The first course is that which theologians have most generally adopted,but [it is adopted] with such limitation,cautels those who would know how and what God really has taught mankind, and whether anything beyond that which man is able,and obviously intended,to arrive at by the use of his natural faculties.

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    I have a funny feeling that we have not seen the last of each other. これはどうゆう訳になるのでしょうか? 一応 前後の文も書いておきます。 I know how it can be when you are visiting friends that you have not seen for a long time. It seems like you never have enough time to fit everyone in! I have a funny feeling that we have not seen the last of each other. よろしくお願いします

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    In actual research these three objects are prosecuted, not successively, but simultaneously. Thus it is not necessary in either case that the final object — that of classification- should wait for its commencement upon the completion of the dissection or analysis of every organism or every mental structure that is to be found upon the earth. On the con trary, the comparison in each case begins with the facts that are first found to be comparable, and is afterwards pro gressively extended as knowledge of additional facts becomes more extensive. * The word " structure " is used in a metaphorical sense when applied to mind, but the usage it convenient.

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    Indeed, we believe we have pioneered the use of barycentric interpolation in statistical inference, demonstrating that it should routinely be used in preference to spline interpolation.

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    It should be borne in mind,' says Dr. Buckland, that the object of the account was, not to state in what manner, but by whom the world was made.' Every one must see that this is an unfounded assertion, inasmuch as the greater part of the narrative consists in a minute and orderly description of the manner in which things were made. We can know nothing as to the object of the account, except from the account itself. What the writer meant to state is just that which he has stated, for all that we can know to the contrary. Or can we seriously beleive that if appealed to by one of his Hebrew hearers or readers as to his intention, he would have replied, My only object in what I have written is to inform you that God made the world; as to the manner of His doing it, of which I have given so exact an account, I have no intention that my words should be taken in their literal meaning? We come then to this, that if we sift the Mosaic narrative of all definite meaning, and only allow it to be the expression of the most vague generalities, if we avow that it admits of no certain interpretation, of none that may not be shifted and altered as often as we see fit, and as the exigencies of geology may require, then may we reconcile it with what science teaches. This mode of dealing with the subject has been broadly advocated by a recent writer of mathematical eminence, who adopts the Bucklandian hypothesis, a passage from whose work we shall quote.

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    We pass to the account of the creation contained in the Hebrew record. And it must be observed that in reality two distinct accounts are given us in the book of Genesis, one being comprised in the first chapter and the first three verses of the second, the other commencing at the fourth verse of the second chapter and continuing till the end. This is so philologically certain that it were useless to ignore it. But even those who may be inclined to contest the fact that we have here the productions of two different writers, will admit that the account beginning at the first verse of the first chapter, and ending at the third verse of the second, is a complete whole in itself. And to this narrative, in order not to complicate the subject unnecessarily, we intend to confine ourselves. It will sufficient for our purpose to enquire, whether this account can be shown to be in accordance with our astronomical and geological knowledge. And for the right understanding of it the whole must be set out, so that the various parts may be taken in connexion with one another.

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    It is, then, adaptive action by a living organism in cases where the inherited machinery of the nervous system does not furnish data for our prevision of what the adaptive action must necessarily be — it is only in such cases that we recognize the element of mind. In other words, ejectively con sidered, the distinctive element of mind is consciousness, the test of consciousness is the presence of choice, and the evidence of choice is the antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action between two or more alternatives. To this analysis it is, however, needful to add that, although our only criterion of mind is antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action, it does not follow that all adjustive action in which mind is con cerned should be of an antecedently uncertain character; or, which is the same thing, [it does'nt follow] that because some such action may be of an antecedently certain character, we should on this account regard it as non-mental. Many adjustive actions which we recognize as mental are, nevertheless, seen before hand to be, under the given circumstances, inevitable ; but analysis would show that such is only the case when we have in view agents whom we already, and from independent videuce, regard as mental.

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    次の文章の和訳をお願いします。とくに,cocoonとchild-in-meの解釈がわかりません。また、That it should~ ...is.の部分はThat it should ~ ... is (a problem).とa problemが省略されていると考えたのですが合っているでしょうか。 [http://balconybanter.blogspot.com/2017/03/the-bitter-sweet-candy-of-nostalgia.html] Being nostalgic is not a problem. That it should be accompanied with a sense of loss....is. As the years roll by, we turn more cynical about the present. But, what do I really miss? Is it the past? Is it the people? Is it the place? The truth is, I miss myself....myself connected to that cocoon. I miss the younger-me, the dreamer-me, the hopeful-me. I miss that believer-me, that child-in-me.