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この英文の意味を教えて下さい。 Again, there are clues and stories that seem to be throwing some light. For instance, many kinds of birds are known to use star maps. In the early weeks of life the baby birds sit in their nets and study the night sky- and are somewhat confused if those early weeks are too cloudy. But they do not, as human amateur astronomers might do , spend their time learning the individual constellations - how to recognize Orion or trace the fanciful outline of Taurus, or whatever. Instead, they focus on the part that does not move as the night progress, which in the Northern Hemisphere means the North Star. They can see, if they look at it long enough, that as the night progresses, all the stars in the sky, including the mighty Orion and the notional Taurus, seem to revolve around the Pole Star, which sits in the middle like the central part of a giant cartwheel Once they recognize the central part, the most fundamental problem is solved. The creature that can do this knows where north is and everything else can be figured out. I don't know what the equivalent would be in the Southern Hemisphere, but undoubtedly there is one. Navigation simply does not seem to need the details of astronomy.


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さらに、幾分、光を投げかけている様に思える手掛かりや話があります。 例えば、多くの種類の鳥が、星図を使うことが知られています。 生まれてから最初の数週間、ヒナドリは、巣の中にいて、夜空を熱心に観察します ― それで、この最初の数週間が、曇り空の夜が多すぎると、幾分、混乱します。 しかし、彼らは、人間のアマチュア天文家がするように、個々の星座を覚えること ― すなわち、オリオン座の見つけ方とか、おうし座の風変わりな輪郭をたどったりして ― 時間を費やすわけではありません。 その代わりに、彼らは、夜に時間が経過しても動かない部分に集中します、この部分は、北半球では、北極星を意味します。 十分長く見つめていれば、夜の時間が経過するにつれて、夜空の全ての星が、力強いオリオン座や幻想的なおうし座を含めて、北極星の周りを回転しているように見えることが、彼らには、分かるのです、つまり、この北極星は、巨大な車輪の中心の様に、中央に位置しているのです。 ひとたび、彼らがこの中心部分に気付けば、最も基本的な問題は、解決します。 このことを行える生き物は、どこが北か分かります、そうすれば、他の全ては、理解できるのです。 南半球で(北極星と)同じ働きをするものが何か、私は、知りませんが、きっと存在するはずです。 飛行術には、とにかく、詳細な天文学は必要ではないように思えます。



  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Lawrence was also criticised for not going forward to supervise the execution of his orders on 5 August, when there was a failure to coordinate the movements of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade and the Mobile Column. Chauvel responded by pointing out that the criticisms of the battle were in danger of obscuring the significance of the victory. 1Murray lavished praise on the Anzac Mounted Division in cables to the Governors General of Australia and New Zealand and in his official despatch and in letters to Robertson, writing: Every day they show what an indispensable part of my forces they are ... I cannot speak too highly of the gallantry, steadfastness and untiring energy shown by this fine division throughout the operations ... These Anzac troops are the keystone of the defence of Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を!

    (4) Considering that 19 types of excrement are mentioned in the cures, from fly excrement to ostrich excrement, it's no surprise Egyptian doctors had a problem with disgruntled patients. They handled malpractice efficiently, though. Diordorus writes,  If they follow the rules of this law as they read them in the sacred book and yet are unable to save their patient, they are absolved from any charge; but if they go contrary to the law's prescriptions they must submit to a trial with death as the penalty. If you're a physician and you follow the rules, all's well. But get creative with your treatments and you won't be treating anyone, unless it's in the afterlife. (5) Just as medical doctors do today, in ancient Egypt doctors specialized. The Greek historian Herodotus writes, "The practice of medicine is so divided among them that each physician treats one disease and no more. There are plenty of physicians everywhere. Some are eye-doctors, some deal with the head, others with the teeth or the belly, and some with hidden maladies...." The Ebers Papyrus even had a section on psychiatry, directing doctors on how to diagnose and treat depression. (6) The Egyptians had a cure for the common cold that was probably as good as anything you can find in a pharmacy today. It required a dose of the milk of a mother who had given birth to a boy, while chanting the spell, "May you flow out...who causes the seven openings in the head to ache." The Egyptians understood injuries caused by an accident, or in battle. They understood parasites and worms such as tapeworms, which they called "snakes in the belly." But for germs that couldn't be seen, Egyptians believed demons were responsible. There's nothing like a good spell to rid the body of evil spirits. The Ebers Papyrus states, "Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic." And so many medical treatments were odd combinations of science and magic.

  • 助けてください 日本語訳でお願いします

    More and more these days we are interacting socially through indirect contact using new technologies like email and instant messaging, or texting. Many psychologists, linguists, and sociologists have lined up to condemn this new kind of communication, primarily because, as the American philosopher and linguist Jerrold Katz once articulated it. “To type is not to be human, to be in cyberspace is not to be real; all is pretense and alienation, a poor substitute for the real thing." You can't get more emphatic than that! Skeptics of the new technologies also argue that they encourage isolation, making it difficult for us to form genuine friendships. As Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) psychologist Sherry Turkle wrote recently, “The little devices most of us carry around are so powerful that they change not only what we do, but also who we are We've become accustomed to a new way of ‘being alone together.

  • 日本語訳が分かりません。

    以下の英文を日本語に訳し、さらに英語で返事をしないといけないのですが意味がよく理解できません。 どなたか教えてください。 By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats. Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly. And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape. So what do you think about it?is it not incredible. I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things. 私が分かる範囲では、 「By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats.」 ・・・ところであなたは日本の首都を知っていますか。彼らはexperimentの一種でねずみと一緒です。そしてそのねずみは猫のそんなに怖い物ではなかった。 「Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly.」 ・・・どの科学者はそれが欲しく、供給したかったのか....? 「And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape.」 ・・・...? 「So what do you think about it?is it not incredible.」 ・・・あなたはこれについてどう思いますか? 「I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things.」 ・・・もし彼らがこれをまた人間の初めとしてできたのなら...? よろしくお願いいたします。

  • 日本語訳を教えて下さい。

    この英文の訳を教えて下さい。 Responders who reject small offers show that even when dealing with a complete stranger, they would rather punish unfairness than gain money. Why would people act in ways that seem contrary to their own interest? The most reasonable answer is that moral intuitions like fairness developed because they improved the reproductive fitness of those who had them and the groups to which they belonged. Among social animals, those who form cooperative relationships tend to do much better than those who do not. By making a fair offer, you signal that you are the kind of person who would make a good partner for cooperating. On the other hand, by rejecting an unfair offer, you show that you are not going to put up with being treated unfairly, and thus you discourage others from trying to take advantage of you. There are also social advantages to such intuitions. A society in which most people act fairly will generally do better than one in which everyone is always seeking to take unfair advantage, because people will be better able to trust each other and form cooperative relationships.

  • 日本語訳を!c14-3

    お願いします!  Both men and women who admired Mahavira and his teachings left their families and became monks and nuns.In fact,when Mahavira died,more than twice as many nuns as monks followed his teachings.Even today,women play an important role in Jain traditions.As mothers,they teach children how to behave and how to live a good life by not killing,stealing,or lying.Jain nuns meditate and go on journeys called pilgrimages to sacred places,take care of sacred scriptures,and teach others about the way to achieve Enlightenment.  All Jains vow not to kill any living thing.This means that Jains cannot be farmers,because they would have to kill insects that destroy plants and they would kill worms when plowing the fields.Jains do not raise animals because they would have to kill the lice,vermin,and germs that livestock often suffer from.They can't be lumberjacks,because that line of work would mean that by cutting down trees they would be killing insects and hurting animals that live in the trees.  Most Jains who were not monks and nuns were traders,bankers,or craftspeople who made things such as jewelry and cloth.The rich Jain merchants became patrons of the arts and paid for the construction of magnificent temples and monasteries.Many of the teachings of famous monks and nuns were written on palm leaves or painted onto birch-bark manuscripts and collected in great libraries.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (8) The plebs still complained that there were no written laws. And a poor-but-free man whoowed money could still be forced into slavery if he couldn't pay his debts. So the plebs left the city again about 450 BCE. This protest finally convinced the Senate to create a written set of laws: the Twelve Tables. These laws set down, in writing, the accepted practices of the day. They didn't get to the root of the trouble between patricians and the discontented poor. The poor were still not treated as equals to the landowning rich. But the Twelve Tables were, at least, a start. (9) The twelve Tables were completed in 450 BCE. At some point─no one knows exactly when─they were inscribed on 12 bronze tables that were set up in the Forum for everyone to see. About a third of these early laws have survived because they were copied down by later writers. The others have been lost. The laws that we know about cover all sorts of crimes and conditions. Table 7, for example, decreed that if a road was not in good condition, a man could legally drive his oxen across someone else's fields. Table 8 dealt with a more serious question: whether a homeowner had the right to kill a burglar who broke into his house. According to Roman law, he did─but only if the burglar came at night or if a daytime burglar was armed and tried to defend himself. (10) Many of the laws make sense. For example, a property owner could be forced to trim his trees so that his neighbors would get sunlight. And if someone stole money, he could not be forced to repay more than three times the amount that he stole. But others seem incredibly harsh: for example,capital punishment for a person who sang an insulting song or lied in court. But all Roman citizens had the right to appeal to the Assembly to reverse a death sentence.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

    お願いします。  There are challenges to living in a country that is mostly desert. By the time the Old Kingdom rolled around, about 2700 BCE, Egyptians were up to meeting those challenges―the most obvious would concern water. Although the derert continually tried to push in on the farmland along the edge of the Nile, the Egyptians had learned how to push back. They coaxed the waters of the Nile inland, filling the buckets of their shadufs and emptying them into channels they had dug through their gardens. Not only were they irrigating their farmlands, they were expanding them. Farmers grew more food than the people could possibly eat. The king's granaries filled. The government organized and financed massive irrigation projects. When you grow more food than you can possibly eat you are left with something to trade with other nations―grain. What Egyptians didn't have they could now get through trade.  A challenge less obvious to those nnt used to surviving in a desert environment is the lack of wood. There are no tall trees in a desert. Actually, there are no trees at all, with the exception of what grew right along the edge of the Nile and in the occasional oasis. Egyptians needed wood―a lot of wood―especially for boats and coffins. They had their eye on the cedar that grew to the northeast, in the land that we now call Lebanon. It was ideal for both boats and coffins because cedar resists rot, and a rotting boat or a rotting coffin can be a problem. And so it began―we've got grain, we need wood, you've got wood, you need grain, let's trade. It was not much different, in principle, from trading baseball cards.