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なぜ<>の中の関係詞になるのか教えてください。

なぜこの関係代名詞になるのか理由をお願いしたいです This is Mr.Kato, the person (who) will be guiding us today. I know a little boy (whose) parents have passed away. She is a good interpreter (who) I believe can help you. That's the restaurant (which/that) just opened six months ago. Yukari got everything (that) she wanted. Nagasaki is a city (which/that) I'd like to visit. That house, the roof of (which) is red, is mine. He is the man with (whom) I talked last night. Beth told me the phone number of the hotel (which/that) she was staying at. This is the very house (that) I wish to live in.

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  • 英語
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  • Him-hymn
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This is Mr.Kato, the person (who) will be guiding us today. →will beの主語になるのが、whoです。これは主語なので主格であるwhoが来ます。whoseやwhomはだめです。また人なので、thatよりもwhoがよいということになります。ただし、thatは文法的には可能です。 I know a little boy (whose) parents have passed away. →parentsについた所有格でないと答になりません。 his parents have passed awayのhisに相当しますので、これは所有格のwhoseとなります。 She is a good interpreter (who) I believe can help you. →これは少しレベルの高い問題ですが、I believeの挿入を取ってしまえば She is a good interpreter ( ) can help you. となり、これですとwhoであることはわかりますね。canの主語だからです。そこにI thinkが拾うと、I believeが入ろうと、やはりwhoであることにかわりはありません。 She is a good interpreter (who) [ I believe ] can help you. [ I believe ]は挿入です。 That's the restaurant (which/that) just opened six months ago. →justがついていますが、openedの主語にあたるわけですから、whichやthatなど、人以外に使う関係代名詞の主格にします。 Yukari got everything (that) she wanted. →she wanted everythingという目的格に対応しますので、whichかthatと考えます。 ところが、先行詞がevery, all, only、最上級などの強い限定を受けるときは、whichを使うのは避けthatを使います。(というより、現代の英語ではなるべくwhichは使わないという傾向があります)。よって、thatだけが答となります。 Nagasaki is a city (which/that) I'd like to visit. →こちらはI'd like to visit the city.という形になるはずですので(冠詞の問題は本題と関係ないので置いておいて、形だけを見ればこうなります)目的語ですから、目的格の関係代名詞となります。thatが答で、whichも文法的には正しいということになるのは、1つ前の私の解説からおわかりかと思います。 That house, the roof of (which) is red, is mine. →the roof of it is redに対応します。そこで、このitはofという前置詞の目的語ですから、目的格のwhichということになります。なお、前置詞のあとにthatを持ってくることはできないので、仕方なくwhichを入れます。先ほどの私の解説と矛盾すると思うかもしれませんが、この問題のような文に持っていけばそうなるのであって、逆に、ネイティブなら、 That house, with its roof painted in red color, is mine.とか何とか、別の表現を使うかもしれませんね。そうやって関係代名詞のwhichを使わないようにしています。whichを使う必要はないということは間違っていません。 He is the man with (whom) I talked last night. →withの後ですから、目的格です。 これはI talked with himに対応しています。 Beth told me the phone number of the hotel (which/that) she was staying at. →これはatの目的語なので目的格that、そしてwhichも文法的には可能です。 This is the very house (that) I wish to live in. →I wish to live in the house.に対応します。目的格のthatです。なお、veryという強い限定語が先行詞にありますのでwhichは使えません。 以上、ご参考になればと思います。

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