• 締切済み
  • すぐに回答を!


From 1908 to 1914, through trial and error, Henry Ford’s talented team of production managers pioneered the development of the moving conveyor belt and thus changed manufacturing practices forever. Although the technical aspects of the move to mass production were a dramatic financial success for Ford and for the millions of Americans who could now afford cars, for the workers who actually produced the cars, many human and social problems resulted. With simplification process of the work process, workers grew to hate the monotony of the moving conveyor belt. By 1914, Ford’s car plants were experiencing huge employee turnover - often reaching levels as high as 300 or 400 percent per year as workers left because they could not handle the work-induced stress. Henry Ford recognized these problems and made an announcement: From that point on, to motivate his workforce, he would reduce the length of the workday from 9 hours to 8 hours, and the company would double the basic wage from $2.50 to $5.00 per day. This was a dramatic increase, similar to an announcement today of an overnight doubling of the minimum wage. Ford became an internationally famous figure, and the word Fordism was coined for his new approach. Ford’s apparent generosity, however, was matched by an intense effort to control the resources - both human and material - with which his empire was built. He employed hundreds of inspectors to check up on employees, both inside and outside his factories. In the factory, supervision was close and confining. Employees were not allowed to leave their places at the production line, and they were not permitted to talk to one another. Their job was to concentrate fully on the task at hand. Few employees could adapt to this system, and they developed ways of talking out of the sides of their mouths, like ventriloquists, and invented a form of speech that became known as the “Ford Lisp.” Ford’s obsession with control brought him into greater and greater conflict with managers, who were often fired when they disagreed with him. As a result, many talented people left Ford to join his growing rivals. Outside the workplace, Ford went so far as to establish what he called the “Sociological Department” to check up on how his employees lived and the ways they spent their time. Inspectors from this department visited the homes of employees and investigated their habits and problems. Employees who exhibited behaviors contrary to Ford’s standards (for instance, if they drank too much or were always in debt) were likely to be fired. Clearly, Ford’s effort to control his employees led him and his managers to behave in ways that today would be considered unacceptable and unethical and in the long run would impair an organization’s ability to prosper.


  • 回答数2
  • 閲覧数74
  • ありがとう数0


  • 回答No.2
  • ddeana
  • ベストアンサー率74% (2977/4020)

1908年から1914年にかけて、試行錯誤を繰り返しながらヘンリー・フォードの有能な生産管理者達のグループは動くベルトコンベアー開発の草分けとなり、それによって製造および品質管理の規範をすっかり変えました。大量生産への移行の技術的側面は、フォードと車を買えるようになった何百万人ものアメリカ人にとっては劇的な経済的成功であったのですが、実際に車を製造する労働者にとっては、多くの人的社会的問題を生じることとなりました。 作業工程の簡略化とともに、労働者達はベルトコンベアー方式の単調さを嫌がるようになりました。1914年までにフォードの自動車工場では、ものすごい数の従業員が離職しましたーそれはしばしば年間で残った労働者数の300~400%にも達しました。なぜなら彼らは単純作業が引き起こすストレスに耐えられなかったからです。ヘンリーフォードはこうした問題を認識して、一つの発表を行いました。すなわち、それ以降全従業員にやる気を出させる為に、彼は1日の労働時間の長さを9時間から8時間に減らし、そして会社は1日あたり、基本時間給を$2.50から$5.00と2倍に増やしたのです。これは今ならば、最低賃金を1夜で2倍にするという発表に近い、劇的な増加でした。フォードは国際的にも有名な人物となり、フォーディズムという言葉は彼の新たなやり方を指すものとして作り出されました。 しかしながら、フォードの見かけ上の気前の良さは、彼の帝国を作り上げた物的・人的資源両方を管理するいっそうの努力とピッタリ一致するものでした。彼は工場の内部外部双方で、従業員をチェックする数百人の検査官を採用しました。工場内では監視が近くで行われ、労働者を縛り付けました。従業員は生産ラインにおける自分達の場所を離れることを許されず、互いに話をすることも許されませんでした。彼らの仕事は、手元の作業にのみ集中することでした。ほとんどの従業員はこのシステムに適応できず、腹話術師のように二枚舌を使う方法を生み出し、「フォード・リスプ」として知られる会話形式を考案しました。管理を追及するフォードの執念は、しばしば彼と意見があわずに首になったマネージャーたちとのますます大きな対立へと、彼を引き込みました。その結果多くの有能な人材が成長しだした彼のライバルたちのところに行く為に、フォードの元を去りました。 職場外において、フォードは彼の従業員達がどのように生活し、どういう方法で自分達の時間を過ごすかを調べ上げる為に「社会学的部門」と呼んだものの設置さえもしたのでした。この部門の検査官達は、従業員の家を訪問し、彼らの習慣や問題点などを調査しました。フォードの基準(例えば、酒を飲みすぎるとかいつも借金をしているなど)に反する行動をとる従業員は解雇される可能性が高かったのです。明らかに、従業員をコントロールしようとするフォードの取り組みは、彼と彼のマネージャー達を、今日では許容されず非倫理的であり、長期的に会社が繁栄する為の能力を損なうと見なされる振る舞いへと至ったのでした。



  • 翻訳をお願い致します!

    So my guess is that some scenario similar to the one I depicted above played out recently for the boys from STP. They were dealt a crappy hand and were forced to fold and move to another table. Why they held out so long I can only assume was rooted in their loyalty to a band mate who chose alcohol over them. It's unfortunate. It sucks. But what Scott Weiland was doing to Robert, Dean, Eric and their families was unforgivable. I say good luck to them. Chester is every bit as talented as his predecessor and from what I can tell of my brief encounter with him he will never become a threat to their future. Good luck guys. Thanks for having us the other night.

  • 翻訳お願いしたいです。

    Because of his age, the zoo dentists want to be sure that Artie does not have any problem with his teeth.Theydecide to take an X-ray, their animal patient comes agreebly out of his pool and goes to an examining table. When the zoo worker tells him to open his mouth, Artie does so with no problem.However, things after that do not go so simply. It is not easy to get an excited sea lion to stay still while an X-ray is taken of his teeth! Every time they take a shot, the sea lion moves to a different position. After a number of attempts, the dentists finally succeed in getting a clear picture. Sea lions eat their food whole, and can eat as much as 20 pounds of fish in one day.Even though they do not chew their food,their teeth and gums can still get diseased. For Artie, his checkup goes well and the dentists conclude that his teeth are just fine: not bad for a 30-year-old who has never brushed his teeth!

  • 翻訳をお願いいたします

    以下の英文を和訳していただけるかたのみで。 お願いできますでしょうか? 1段落の前半部分ですので、中途半端だと思いますが、 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 Prone to talk in his sleep and cry out. poor eye sight, sick after eating. Motions sickness. or some impediment to health a childhood affliction that made life gloomy for a time, and was like a hard cross to bear. But he persevered through it and the main part of his childhood was good. His family were brusque and uncultivated, their education was from the hard school of life, not fine colleges but they were good hearted, somewhat quarrelsome, wasting their energies and wealth.

  • 回答No.1

1908年から1914年まで、試行錯誤によって、ヘンリー・フォードの生産管理者の才能のあるチームは、動いているコンベヤーベルトおよびしたがって変更された生産慣習の開発を永久に開拓しました。 大量生産への動きの技術的側面は実際に自動車を生産した労働者のために、フォード、および今自動車を持つ余裕のある何百万ものアメリカ人にとって劇的な金融成功でしたが、多くの人間および社会問題が生じました。 作業過程の単純化プロセスで、労働者は、動いているコンベヤーベルトの単調を嫌うようになりました。 1914年までに、フォードの自動車は植えます、大きな労働移動率を経験していた-それらが仕事誘発ストレスを扱うことができなかったので、残された労働者として1年当たり300あるいは400パーセントまでレベルにしばしば達すること ヘンリー・フォードはこれらの問題を認識し、発表を行ないました: そのポイント以降、労働力を動機づけると、彼は、9時間から8時間に仕事日の長さを減らすでしょう。また、会社は1日当たり2.50ドルから5.00ドルまで基本賃金を2倍にするでしょう。 これは、今日、最低賃金の一夜に2倍になることに発表に似ていて、劇的な増加でした。 フォードは国際的に有名人物になりました。また、単語(フォーディズム)は彼の新しいアプローチのために造られました。 しかしながら、フォードの明白な寛大は、彼の帝国が構築された資源(人間と資料の両方)をコントロールする、懸命な努力によって一致しました。 彼は、従業員を調べるために工場の内部で、およびその工場の外で、何百もの検査官を雇用しました。 工場では、監督は接近していて制限していました。 従業員は、生産ラインで場所を去ることを認められませんでした。また、彼らは、互いに話しかけることは許されませんでした。 それらの仕事はタスクに完全に近づいて専念することでした。 このシステムに適合するかもしれないし、彼らが、腹話術師のように、それらの口の側から話す方法を開発し、「フォード・リスプ」として知られるようになったスピーチの形式を発明した従業員はほとんどいません。 フォードのコントロールへの執念は彼をマネージャーとのますます大きな矛盾へ連れて来ました。それらが彼に合わなかった時、彼らはしばしば発射されました。 その結果、多くの才能のある人々が、彼の成長しているライバルに加わるためにフォードを残しました。 作業場所の外で、フォードは彼が何を彼の従業員がどのように生きていたか調べる「社会学の部」、およびそれらが時間を過ごした方法と呼んだか確証しさえしました。 この部の検査官は、従業員の家を訪れて、習慣と問題を調査しました。 フォードの標準(例えばそれらがあまりに飲んだか、常に負債中だった場合)に反して振る舞いを示した従業員が解雇されるでしょう。 明白に、彼の従業員をコントロールするフォードの努力は彼をリードしました。また、承諾しがたく、不道徳である、と今日考えられる方法で、および結局作用する彼のマネージャーは、繁栄する組織の能力を害するでしょう。 完璧ですね。



  • とても長いのですが翻訳のお力添えを願います

     Lazzero was called to Pisa to his great and rich inheritance. When he had entered into possession, he took only one mansevant to serve along with the old woman, and he kept on the steward who looked after the land and the crops.  Now all the world at once wanted to find him a wife, forgetting all about his coarseness and his stupidity. But he replied resolutely that he wanted to wait four years longer, and then he would think about it : so after that, not a word more was said, for they knew his nature. He, by way of living a gay life, refused to associate with any man of birth, and fled from conversation faster than devils flee from the cross.  By good luck there lived opposite him a poor man called Gabriello, with a wife named Santa, and two children, one a boy of five and the other a girl of three, and that was all they were, in their little house. But Gabriello was a fisher and a bird-catcher and a perfect maker of cages, and he kept his family as best he could by his fishing and his bird-catching, helped all the same by his wife, who wove linen cloth.  This Gabriello, as God would have it, was so like Lazzero in the face, that it was a marvel; they were both red-haired, their beards were of the same size and thickness, so that they seemed born at the same birth: and not only were they alike in appearance and in build, but they were almost of an age, and as I have said before, their ways were so much alike, that if they'd been dressed the same, it would have been hard to find anybody who would have known them apart, even Gabriello's wife herself would have been deceived. Only the clothes made a difference, because the one was dressed in the roughest stuff, and the other in the finest cloth. (急いで打ったため、打ち間違えがあるかもしれません。)

  • 翻訳お願いします^^;

    Evolutionary biologists such as Dr. Barry Sinervo research the origin of species and how they adapt to their environments. Dr. Sinervo specializes in lizard species. His team went to various sites where a particular lizard species lives. He and his team were investigating the effect of the lizard’s colorful appearance on its evolution. Unfortunately, the lizard species they were looking for turned out to be hard to find. Thus, the focus of their research changed from “how did the lizard’s appearance help it survive and evolve?” to “why is this species going extinct?” Habitat destruction is the most common reason for species to disappear from the Earth. However, the lizards were living in protected areas which were untouched by human activity. Thus, the team investigated alternative explanations for the disappearance of the lizards.

  • 翻訳お願いします

     Once upon a time, there was a case history involving a 14-yers-old boy named Chris. He had been misled to believe and remember that he had been lost in a shopping mall at about the age of 5, that he had been frightened and was crying, and that he had ultimately been rescued by an elderly person and reunited with his family. Chris was partly responsible for inspiring a variety of empirical efforts to create entirely false memories of childhood.  At the University of Washington, my collaborators and I conducted a study using a simple method that was similar to the one Chris had experienced.  The subjects were 24 individuals who were asked to recall events that were supposedly supplied by a close relative. Three of the events were true, and one was a false event about getting lost in a shopping mall, department store, or other public place. The subjects, who ranged in age from 18 to 53, thought they were taking part in a study of childhood memories. At the outset, each subject completed a booklet said to contain four short stories about events from his or her childhood provided by a parent, sibling, or other older relative. Three events had actually happened, and the fourth, always in the third position, was false. Each event was described in a single paragraph.   The false event was constructed from information provided by the relative, who was asked where the family would have shopped when the subject was about 5 years old, which members of the family usually went along on shopping trips, and what kinds of stores might have attracted the subject’s interest. The relative was also asked to verify that the subject had not been lost in a mall around the age of 5. The false events always included the following elements: that the subject (a) was lost in a mall, large department store, or other public place for an extended period of time at about the age of 5, (b) cried, (c) was found and aided by an elderly woman, and (d) was reunited with the family.   Subjects completed the booklets by reading about each event and then writing what they remembered about each event. If they did not remember an event, they were told to write, “I do not remember this.”  When the booklets were returned, subjects were called and scheduled for two interviews that occurred approximately 1 to 2 weeks apart. Subjects thought the study was about how their memories compared with those of their relative. Across the interviews, subjects remembered something about 68% of the true events about which they were questioned. The rate of “remembering” the false event was lower: 25% remembered the event, fully or partially.

  • 翻訳をお願い致します!

    The band all quit their day jobs and began working on Core. They chose Brendan O'Brien to produce their first album. O'Brien helped the band hone their sound and stay focused on their angsty alternative rock sound that was featured on their Wicked Garden, Where The River Goes, Naked Sunday, and Only Dying demos. Steve Stewart recalls, “Yes – the best rock producer of that era, Brendan O'Brien, had a lot to do with that. Robert asked me to find him and inquire about producing Core. At that point, the LA scene was dominated by bands like the Chili Peppers and Fishbone, etc., while Seattle was starting to come into its own with a post-punk, stripped-down version of rock.” O'Brien would go on to produce STP's first five albums. Scott Weiland was obsessed with The Doors while recording Core, with Jim Morrison being his main influence. As the band were finishing the album and deciding on artwork, their lawyer told them that an old blues singer named Mighty Joe Young was making a comeback, so they had to change their name. Weiland always liked the initials STP from the motor oil logo, and the band initially joked around about the idea of renaming the band Shirley Temple's Pussy. They eventually decided on Stone Temple Pilots.

  • 翻訳をお願い致します!

    Weiland also has his own issues with his former mates as he feels their continuance with Chester Bennington as a lead vocalist also violates the aforementioned legal documents. Both sides currently have suits against each other trying to decide who has the rights to perform the music and use the name. As for the solo tour, Weiland kicks things off on the West Coast with a two-night stand at the Viper Room in West Hollywood, Calif. Aug. 2 and 3. The trek runs through an Aug. 24 finale in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Weiland and the Wildabouts recently concluded their spring leg of dates and the vocalist will spend a majority of the summer with his new bride as they enjoy their first few months of marriage. ※『Scott Weiland』『Chester Bennington』は人物名、『Stone Temple Pilots』『the Wildabouts』はバンド名、『the Viper Room』はナイトクラブ名です。

  • 次の文章の和訳をお願いします。

    So,the troll children picked up the mirror and started to carry it away. But suddenly the mirror broke and thousands of tiny pieces of glass fell to earth. Now,what will happen? If one piece of glass from the mirror touches someone they will be nasty and mean for the rest of their life. Far,far away in Denmark there lived two happy children,a girl called Gerda and her brother Kay. They were the best of friends as well as being brother and siste and they did everything together. Every day during the summer,they played in the fields and explored the countryside close to their grandmother's house. Sometimes they went as far as the mountains,almost a day's walk away. They loved the animals at their grandmother's,especially the reindeer,Ned. The most fun they had was when they rode around on his back together. When they felt hungry,they called down to their grandmother from outside their bedroom window. `Hey,Granny!What's for tea today?' And their grandmother would answer, `Come down and see what's for tea,children!' Often Kay kould pick a red rose from outside the window as a present for his grandmother. Hewould hold it behind his back and then surprise her with it at the last minute. `Ta-rah!For you,beautiful lady!' His grandmother was always surprised and laughed and laughed. They were such happy days for everyone.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    Visual signalling was used as a substitute for line communications but some short-range (7,000-yard (6,400 m)) wireless transmitters were introduced; weighing 101 pounds (46 kg), needing four men to carry and considerable time to set up, they proved of limited value. Artillery boards came into use, which had blank sheets with a 1:10,000 scale grid in place of maps, datum shooting was used to check gun accuracy from 2–3 times a day and better calibration drills and meteor (weather) telegrams were announced. The tactical role of artillery was defined as, the overpowering of enemy artillery, the killing or incapacitating of enemy infantry and the destruction of defences and other obstacles to movement. Barbed-wire was the most difficult obstruction to tackle and 1,800–2,400 yards (1,600–2,200 m) was the best range for cutting it with 18-pdr field guns (with regular calibration and stable gun platforms), conditions which were not always met.

  • 翻訳をお願い致します!

    STP first sought to self-release their music when they reunited in 2008, but Atlantic Records sued them because they claimed that while they had released the DeLeo brothers from their contracts for Army of Anyone, Scott Weiland and Eric Kretz were still under contract and they owned the rights to the next STP album. STP gave in an recorded their 2010 comeback album Stone Temple Pilots for Atlantic, which ended up being their final album with Weiland. The album debuted at #2 and spawned the radio hit “Between The Lines.” STP's remaining members appear to have gotten out of the deal since then. ※ 『Stone Temple Pilots』『Army of Anyone』はバンド名、『Scott Weiland』『Eric Kretz』は人物名、『Between The Lines』は曲名です。

  • 翻訳をお願い致します!

    Weiland recently embarked on a new run of solo tour dates beginning on August 2 in Los Angeles. As with his other shows earlier in the year, Weiland is playing material from STP's first two albums, "Core" and "Purple", as well as a smattering of covers, solo tunes and other STP tracks. Weiland's use of STP songs in his solo shows was reportedly one of the reasons why the band sacked and then sued him. The band members claim that this, along with his erratic behavior and substance abuse issues, damaged their career.

  • 翻訳をお願い致します。

    Weiland is getting ready to embark on a solo tour where he will perform songs from the first two STONE TEMPLE PILOTS albums, 1992's "Core" and 1994's "Purple". "Originally, it was an idea I came up with for STP for the anniversary of 'Core' to do the 'Core' album in its entirety," Weiland told MLive. "The rest of the guys didn't want to do it. So, it was still something that there was a lot of public interest in. Having that said, the idea was brought up to me through management. I talked to the guys in my solo band, THE WILDABOUTS, and they were totally into it, as were the promoters. It worked out." ※ 『Stone Temple Pilots』『THE WILDABOUTS』はバンド名、『Scott Weiland』は人物名、『Core』『Purple』はアルバム名です。