• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします (13) The Romans were completely outnumbered, and the men with Horatius panicked. They threw their weapons on the ground and started running. Horatius begged them to stay and fight. He said it would be foolish to run away, leaving the enemy free to cross the bridge and march into Rome. Shouting over the noise of battle, he asked them at least to destroy the bridge, if they were too afraid to fight. He would meet the enemy alone on the other side. (14) Horatius's courage astonished Romans and Etruscans alike, but only two Roman soldiers were brave enough to cross the bridge and fight beside him. The three men fought on the riverbank while the rest of the Romans hacked away at the bridge with their swords. When only a small strip of bridge was left, Horatius insisted that his two companions return across it to safety. (15) Livy tells the story of how Horatius stood alone, facing the enemy: “Looking round with eyes dark with menace upon the Etruscan chiefs, he challenged tham to single combat, calling tham the slaves of a tyrant king....” At first the Etruscans held back, but then, shamed by Horatius's courage, they began to hurl their javelins at him. Horatius caught their weapons on his shield. “As stubborn as ever, he stood on the bridge, his feet planted wide apart. The Etruscans were about to charge him when two sounds split the air: the crash of the broken bridge and the cheer of the Romans when they saw the bridge fall.” (16) This stopped the Etruscans in their tracks. Then Horatius prayed to the god of the river. “‘Holy Father Tiber...receive these arms and your soldier into your kindly waters.’ With that, he jumped into the river with all his armor on and safely swam across to his friends: an act of daring more famous than believable in later times.” The Roman people placed a statue in the public square to honor Horatius. As a reward for his amazing courage, they gave him as much land as he could plow in a day.


  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

(13) ローマ人は、完全に人数で負けていたので、ホラティウスの部下たちは、うろたえました。彼らは、武器を地面に放り投げて、逃げ始めました。ホラティウスは、彼らに留まって、戦うように頼みました。彼は、逃げることは、愚かであると言いました、逃げれば、敵に自由に橋を渡ってローマに進軍させることになるからです。戦いの騒音よりも大きな声で叫んで、彼は、彼らが、恐ろしくて戦えないのであれば、少なくとも、彼らに橋を破壊するよう頼みました。彼は、向こう岸で、一人で敵に立ち向かうつもりでした。 (14) ホラティウスの勇気は、ローマ人とエトルリア人双方を驚かしました、しかし、勇気を出して、橋を渡り、彼のそばで戦ったのは、2人のローマの兵士だけでした。その3人の男は、川岸で戦いました、他方、残りのローマ人は、彼らの剣で橋をたたき壊しました。橋の残りが、ごく狭い部分だけになった時、ホラティウスは、彼の2人の仲間に、それを渡って、安全な所に戻るようにと命じました。 (15) リヴィは、ホラティウスが、どのように一人で敵に立ち向かったかを語ります:「エトルリアの隊長たちを威嚇するような目つきで見まわして、彼は、彼らを暴君の奴隷と呼んで、彼らに一騎討ちを挑みました....」最初、エトルリア人は、ためらいました、しかし、ホラティウスの勇気に名誉を傷つけられて、彼らは、投げ槍を彼に投げつけ始めました。ホラティウスは、彼の盾で彼らの武器を捕えました。「あいかわらず頑なに、彼は、足を広く踏ん張って、橋の上に立っていました。 エトルリア人が、正に、彼を襲おうとしていた時、二つの音が、空気をつんざきました:壊れた橋が崩壊する音と橋が落ちるのを見たローマ人の歓声でした。」 (16) これは、エトルリア人を急に立ち止まらせました。その時、ホラティウスは、川の神に祈りました。「『父なるテベレ川の神よ ... 汝の優しき水にこれらの武器と汝の兵士を迎えたまえ。』そう叫ぶと、彼は、鎧を身にまとったまま、川に飛び込み、味方の方へ無事泳ぎつきました:後の時代には、信じられないほど有名になった大胆な行為でした。」ローマの人々は、ホラティウスに敬意を表して、公共広場に像を建てました。彼の驚くべき勇気の報酬として、彼らは、彼に彼が一日で耕すことができる広さの土地を与えました。





  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (19) Cincinnatus immediately went to the city and set to work. Although he could have ruled as dictator for six months, Cincinnatus assembled an army, defeated the Aequi, and than laid down his power to return to his plow─all in just 15 days. (20) For two more centuries the Romans fought against the other people of Italy. Scholars follow the Romans in calling these non-Romans Italians. The Romans saw them as enemies to be conquered, even though some of them also spoke Latin. (21) By 266 BCE, Rome controlled the entire Italian peninsula. Roman writers used the stories of Cincinnatus and Horatius to show how courage and determination helped Rome conquer all of Italy and eventually the rest of the Mediterranean world.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Patriotic writers like Livy took great pride in telling about brave Horatius and how he stopped the foreign attackers. Livy knew that the story was exaggerated and that his first-century readers wouldn't completely believe it. But he wasn't telling it to get the facts straight. He told it because it painted a picture of Roman courage at its best. Horatius represented the “true Roman.” (18) Even though Rome had abolished kingship, the Senate had the power to appoint a dictator in times of great danger. This happened in 458 BCE when the Aequi, an Italic tribe living west of Rome, attacked. The Senate sent for Cincinnatus, a farmer who had served as a consul two years earlier. The Senate's messengers found him working in his field and greeted him. They asked him to put on his toga so they might give him an important message from the Senate. Cincinnatus “asked them, in surprise, if all was well, and bade his wife, Racilia, to bring him his toga.... Wiping off the dust and perspiration, he put it on and came forward.” than the messengers congratulated Cincinnatus and told him that he had been appointed dictator of Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) The Romans planned to invade Spain and fight Hannibal there. But Hannibal didn't wait around. He decided to surprise them and invade Italy first. The journey toward Rome took five months, beginning with a long march across France. Then Hannibal led his soldiers through the Alps. He lost one-third of his men during the icy mountain crossing. But still he marched on, with men, horses, and war elephants. These African elephants were decorated for battle and painted in bright colors. (Their trunks were usually red.) Swords were attached to their tusks. Some carried towers on their backs─small fortresses that protected the soldiers riding inside as they shot arrows and hurled stones at their Roman enemies. (14) The Romans first faced Hannibal's elephants at the Battle of Lake Trebia in northern Italy in 218 BCE. When Hannibal gave the signal, the elephant handlers jabbed the beasts with iron pokers─whips are not enough for elephants─and drove the trumpeting animals forward. Most Italians had never seen an elephant. Their size alone must have been terrifying. The Roman horses─and many soldiers too─panicked at the sight and smell of these monstrous creatures. (15) Pressing deeper into Italy, Hannibal showed his cleverness at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, in central Italy, in 217 BCE. Pretending to march against Rome itself, he lured the Romans into a narrow pass and ambushed them from the hills. His troops demolished the Roman army. (16) A year later, Hannibal conquered the Roman troops again at the Battle of Cannae, in southern Italy, thanks to his powerful cavalry and a brilliant battle plan. Hannibal commanded the soldiers fighting in the center to pretend to retreat─to move back, as if they were losing. The Romans fell for Hannibal's trick and followed. Then the Carthaginians fighting on the flanks closed in on the Romans and surrounded them. The Romans were trapped!

  • 日本語訳を!!

    (9) When the herdsman found Romulus and Remus, he took them home. He and his wife raised the boys their own. The twins grew to be brave, manly, and noble. They roamed the countryside like ancient Robin Hoods, often saving innocent people from danger and persecution. (10) Romulus and Remus eventually discovered who they really were and decided to found a new city near the Tiber River, where they had been rescued as babies. But the brothers didn't get along very well, and they disagreed about where the city should be built. They tried to settle their argument through divination, using the path of birds in the sky to figure out the wishes of the gods. They decided to watch some vultures flying overhead. Romulus tried to trick Remus, pretending to have spotted more vultures than he actually saw, and then Remus made fun of Romulus. The brothers got into a fight, and Romulus killed Remus. (11) Romulus buried his brother and then, with his followers, built a new city on the Palatine Hill and circled it with strong, stone walls. As the city grew, it eventually enclosed seven hills and took the name of its founder, Romulus―or Rome. The Romans dated everything that happened after that “frod the founding of the city”in 753 BCE. For more than a thousand years, they used a calender that began in that year. (12) Some Romans claimed that Romulus and Remus were the sons of Mars, the god of war. Later Romans believed that this connection to Mars explained Romulus's cruel attack on the Sabines, a tribe that lived in small, unprotected villages near Rome. Romulus was convinced that Rome would become great through war, so he pretended to invite his Sabine neighbors to a festival. But then he led the Romans in a sudden attack. The soldiers seized 30 unmarried women and ran off―taking the Sabine women home as their wives.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (6) On March 15, the day known in Rome as the Ides of March, Caesar went to a meeting of the Senate. As usual, he had no bodyguards. On the way, a soothsayer─a “truth teller” who can tall the future─stopped him with a warning: “Caesar, beware the Ides of March.” (The Romans called the middle day of the month the “Ides”; it usually fell on the 15th.) The dictator ignored him and walked on. But when he arrived at the meeting place, a group of senators─mostly old friends and men he had pardoned and promoted─surrounded him. They quickly closed in and, drawing their knives, began to stab him. Bleeding from 23 brutal wounds, Caesar fell and died at the base of a statue he had commissioned: a statue of Pompey─his rival and friend. (7) Who was this man who stirred such a powerful mix of love, admiration,fear, and hatred? (8) Julius Caesar was born into a noble family, but he always supported the rights of the common people. He was the plebeian's favorite politician. They believed that he understood and cared about their needs. He did, but he was no saint. He was practical, strong willed, and hungry for power. Street-smart, he made very few mistakes, and he knew how to take advantage of the mistakes of his enemies. (9) In 60 BCE, Julius Caesar wanted to become a consul, but he was broke. He had already spent everything he had (or could borrow) to pay for his political career up to that point. He needed money and he needed help. So he made a bargain with two other men who also needed something: Cicero's friend Pompey and Crassus, the richest man in Rome. The three formed the First Triumvirate.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (16) Pompey would have liked more time to train his troops; they were not as battle- ready as Caesar's army. When Caesar's troops entered Italy, Pompey's soldiers panicked and many deserted. Pompey gathered what troops he could and escaped from Rome just before Caesar arrived. Caesar had Pompey on the run. (17) Caesar entered Rome for the first time in nine years. He found the government in chaos. Again, he didn't hold back but set to work right away. He asked the Senate to join forces with him to avoid more bloodshed. He chose Mark Antony as his chief lieutenant─next in command. Then, delegating power to other trusted generals, Caesar himself set out for Greece. There he defeated Pompey's army in 48 BCE. (18) Plutarch reports that when Caesar saw the dead Romans lying on the field, he groaned and said: “They made this happen;they drove me to it.” (19) News of Caesar's victory was greeted back home with wild excitement. His popularity soared, and Rome elected him to a second consulship. (20) Meanwhile Pompey had escaped to Egypt, arriving in the midst of a civil war between 15-year-old King Ptolemy XIII and his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy believed that Caesar would follow his rival to Egypt, and he was right. So he prepared a surprise for the general. Hoping to please Caesar and lure him to his side against Cleopatra, Ptolemy's advisors captured Pompey and cut off his head. Then they pickled it in brine. They expected Caesar to be delighted, but they were wrong. (21) When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's pickled head─the head of the noble Roman who had been his rival but also his friend and former son-in-law. Disgusted and pained, Caesar turned away and wept. He commanded that Pompey's body be buried with honor. And he ordered the execution of the Egyptians who had murdered a great leader of the Roman people.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (14) Crassus was furious. He armed the men again. Then he divided 500 of the soldiers into 50 groups of 10. In each group, the men drew straws, and one man was chosen. Plutarch says that Crassus ordered the death of these fifty men, that they be executed“with a variety of appalling and terrible methods, performed before the eyes of the whole army, gathered to watch.”Crassus finally led Rome to victory, but only after a long, fierce struggle. Most of the rebels were killed. According to Plutarch, Spartacus refused to give up and fought savagely, even after the last of his men had deserted him. In the end, he died a soldier's death―with his sword in his hand. (15) The Romans crucified 6,000 rebels and left hanging on wooden crosses all along the Appian Way―a road that led to Rome. Their rotting bodies served as a horrible warning to rebellious slaves. (16) Although Rome was cruel to its slaves, not all of them suffered as terribly as the gladiators and mine workers did. Many captured people were skilled craftsmen who were allowed to continue their work as potters, artists, or metal workers. Those who worked in the homes of wealthy aristocrats were also treated fairly well―compared to less fortunate slaves. Household slaves were usually well fed and clothed. And their jobs were much safer and more pleasant. They worked as nannies, cooks, and seamstresses. Welleducated Greek slaves could become household secretaries or tutors for their masters' children. (17) Although slaves might become friendly with the master and his family, they still had to take orders. And if they committed crimes, they could be tortured, burned alive, crucified, or sent to fight wild beasts in the arena while the audience watched and cheered. The upper classes never suffered these violent punishments. Aristocratic criminals were killed with the sword―a quicker, less agonizing way to die.

  • 日本語訳を!!8

    お願いします (1) Spartacus was born into a world of comfort and freedom. His father may even have been a nobleman. And yet Spartacus died a Roman slave. (2) Ancient writers give us only a sketchy outline of Spartacus's early years, but he was probably born in Thrace on the eastern fringe of Rome's huge empire. He served in the Roman army for a while but then deserted. Now instead of fighting to defend Rome, he became a rebel and a robber. (3) When the Romans captured him, they made him a slave and put him on the auction block. Whoever offered the most money would own him. Like all slaves in ancient Rome, Spartacus could be bought and sold as easily as a pottery bowl or a bundle of grain. If he got into trouble or tried to escape, he might be forced to wear a metal band around his neck. On one of these collars, now in a museum, are the words:“I have run away. Capture me. When you have returned me to my master...you will get a reward.”He might have had a brand on his face, made with a sizzling-hot iron. He could not own land or vote. He could not marry legally, and his children would be born into slavery. He could not choose his work; his master would make that decision. (4) Many foreign slaves, mostly prisoners of war, did the backbreaking work of building roads and aqueducts. Another unpleasant job was cleaning the public toilets and baths. But one of the worst places to work was in the silver mines of Spain. This was often the fate of slaves who had been convicted of crimes. The Greek historian Diodorus describes the lives of these men: Their bodies are worn down from working in the mine shafts both day and night. Many die because of the terrible treatment they suffer. They are given no rest or break from their work but are forced by the whiplashes of their overseers to endure the most dreadful hardships.... They often pray more for death than for life.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.