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お願いします  Dear Geezer,  This is Egypt. Women have more legal rights than anywhere else in the world. You own your own property and can do what you want with it. Cut the ungrateful kids out of your will.        Bes  Dear Bes,  My neighbor keeps stealing the grain we keep up on the roof. Is there anything we can do to stop her?         Sincerely,         Hungry in Hermopolis  Dear Hungry,  Theft is a big problem in village life. You probably can't stop her from stealing, but you could have a little fun and make her hair fall out. Try this recipe from the Ebers Medical Papyrus: "To cause the gahair to fall out: burnt leaf of lotus is put in oil and applied to the head of a hated woman."        Bes (17) Our magazine wouldn't have a wedding section. There is no evidence that ancient Egyptians had a marriage ceremony―no religious ceremony, no legal ceremony, no vows or rings, no wedding gown. A woman moved into her husband's house and took over from the mother the title of "woman of the house." Bes would get a lot of letters asking advice about how to get along with the mother-in-law! A marriage contract listed what the woman brought with her so that if there was a divorce the property could be split up properly. If divorced, women were entitled to what they brought into the marriage plus a share of the joint property. (18) Our magazine would have book reviews. Thumbs up for The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, the action-packed adventure of a sailor marooned on a deserted island. Or is ht deserted? When a giant human-headed serpent appears the sailor realizes he's not alone. "Then I heard a noise of thunder; I thought it was a wave of sea, for the trees were splintering, the earth shaking. I uncovered my face and found it was a serpent coming." Twist ending leaves the reader hanging.


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親愛なるご老人へ、 ここは、エジプトです。 女性には、世界の他のどこよりも法的な権利があります。 あなたは、あなた自身の資産を所有して、それで望むことをすることができます。 恩知らずな子供たちをあなたの遺言から排除しなさい。 ベス 親愛なるベス、 私の隣人は、私たちが、屋根の上に蓄えてある穀物を盗み続けます。 彼女を止めさせるために私たちがすることができる何かがありますか? 敬具 ヘルモポリスの空腹な人より 親愛なる空腹な人へ、 窃盗は、村の生活では大きな問題です。 あなたは、彼女が盗みをするのを多分止めることができないでしょう、しかし、あなたは、少し楽んで、彼女の髪を抜けさせることができるでしょう。 エーバース医学パピルスからこのレシピをためしてください: 「彼女の髪の毛を抜けさせるために: ハスの焼けた葉を、油に浸し、憎らしい女性の頭に塗り付けなさい。」 ベス (17) 我々の雑誌には、結婚のセクションがありません。 古代のエジプト人に、結婚式 ― 宗教的な儀式、法律の儀式、誓いや指輪、結婚式の衣装 ― が、あったという証拠がありません。 女性は、彼女の夫の家へ引っ越して、母親から「家の女」の称号を引き継ぎました。ベスは、姑と仲良くしてゆく方法についてのアドバイスを求めるたくさんの手紙を受け取ったことでしょう! 結婚の契約には、離婚になった場合に、資産がきちんと分割されるように、女性が、持ってきたものを、列挙していました。 離婚するならば、女性は、彼女たちが結婚で持ち込んできた物に対する権利に加えて、共有財産を分け合う権利がありました。 (18) 我々の雑誌には、書評もありました。 無人島で孤立した水夫のアクションシーンがつめこまれた冒険物語の「難破した水夫の物語」はお勧めです。あるいは、それは、見捨てられるでしょうか? 巨大な人間の頭の付いた大蛇が現れると、その水夫は、自分が一人ではないと気付きます。「その時、私は雷鳴を聞いた; 私はそれが海の波だと思った、なぜなら、木々が、引き裂け、地面が揺れたからだ。 私は、目を開き、それが近づいてくる大蛇だとわかった。」 ひねりのある結末は、読者に気を持たせます。





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    お願いします (14) It is no wonder Herodotus thought that Egyptians were obsessed with their appearance. Tomb walls show their dedication to grooming. A nobleman who lived nearly 4,500 years ago is shown getting a pedicure. At Deir el-Bahri there is scene after scene of royal cosmetic rituals. The number and quality of cosmetic containers ane palettes found in tombs is more evidence of the importance Egyptians placed on good grooming. One fabulous makeup jar was carved so delicately that the alabaster is nearly transparent. This 6th dynasty (about 2345-2180 BCE) cosmetic container is in the shape of a female monkey cradling her baby in such a way that it looks as if it is in her womb. (15) The Ebers Papyrus also has practical advice on how to manage body odor. "To expel stinking of the body of man or woman: ostrich-egg, shell of tortoise and gallnut from tamaris are roasted and the body is rubbed with the mixture." For those looking for a simpler deodorant, the trend was to roll incense into a ball and mash it into your armpits. From body oils to body paint, Egyptians had a bounty of beauty hints―honey for anti-wrinkle cream, mint for fresh breath, beeswax for hair gel. (16) If ancient Egyptians had an advice columnist, it would likely be "Dear Bes." Bes was the mischievous god of the family. Picture a god that is part dwarf, part lion―stocky, with a big head, bugged-out eyes, sticking his tongue out at you. That's Bes. Bes rarely walked. He skipped, hopped, or danced―and nome too gracefully―while playing his tambourine. Everyone loved Bes.  Dear Bes,  "I am a free woman of Egypt. I have raised eight children, and have provided them with everything suitable to their station in life. But now I have grown old and behold, my children don't look after me anymore." What should I do?         Sincerely,         Geezer from Giza

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    お願いします (4) The dwarf-god Bes was a welcome sight to woman in labor. Bes fought off evil spirits that might threaten her or her body. During the Middle Kingdom, Bes's likeness might be carved onto the boomerang-shaped magic wand women often placed on their stomachs while giving birth. During the New Kingdom, Bes's picture might be painted on the birth house wall. Childbirth was dangerous to both mother and baby, so divine help from any of the gods associated with newborns was sought out, particularly from the chief god of newborns―the pregnant hippo-goddess, Taweret. (5) Scholars believe one out of every two or three newborns died, but they can only estimate because many newborns did not have their own burial. If a mother and baby both died in childbirth, they would be buried together. Babies who died soon after birth might be placed in clay pots and buried under the home, and those who never lived long enough to be named might be thrown into the Nile to the crocodiles. Mothers anxiourly watched their babies for danger signs. With predictions such as, "If the child made a sound like the creaking of the pine trees, or turned his face downward, he would die," it's no wonder they were anxious. (6) Parents named their children quickly. A child without a name was doomed to the "second death"―complete erasure―no life after death. Mothers wasted no time announcing their newborn's mame. Some names were long―Hekamaatreemperkhons. And some names were short―Ti. Some names described the child―Nefertiti, the Beautiful Woman Has Come. Some names connected the child with one of the gods―Tutankhamen, the Living Image of Amun. And some names were what the mother cried out when she gave birth―Nefret, pretty.

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    お願いします (31) When Octavian's messengers broke into the tomb, they found Cleopatra and one of her handmaidens already dead. The other servant was dying─like her mistress, poisoned by the asp. Octavian was angry to have lost his prize, but he admired the queen's courage and determination. (32) Plutarch writes that Octavian commanded that she be “buried with royal splendor and magnificence, and her body laid beside Antony's.” He then gave orders for Caesarion's execution. For Octavian, the great Julius Caesar could have only one heir─himself. (33) What gave Cleopatra such power? She wasn't the most beautiful woman the world has ever known, but she must have been fascinating Poets and historians, both Greek and Roman, described her as a goddess. Her fame continues. Countless plays, operas, and movies have been produced about her. William Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra is still performed today all over the world. Cleopatra's dramatic death has been the subject of dozens of paintings. Yet no one knows what she really felt about her Roman loves. Did she truly care about Caesar or was he just a tool of her ambition? Did she fall in love with the handsome Mark Antony or did she use him in a desperate attempt to save the throne of Egypt? (34) These mysteries surround the Cleopatra of history. We may never know the answers.

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    お願いします (4) As a queen, Hatshepsut's powers were limited. When a king took the throne, he became a god and the middleman (or middlegod?) between the heavenly gods and the people. One of his most important jobs was to please the gods. That guaranteed the desired balance known as ma'at. Egypt could then flourish. No king meant no ma'at, which meant no flourishing. Egyptians would be doomed to the chaos of the Intermediate Perimds. If Hatshepsut hoped to maintain ma'at, she must first become a king. She needed to show the people that the gods were pleased with her as the ruler, that the gods recognized her as king, and that she herself was indeed divine. What better way to prove her divinity than to claim that it was the gods' idea in the first place? Who would question a choice made by the gods? (5) Hatshepsut set out to show Egypt that she was no mere mortal, but the daughter of the great god Amun, who personally chose her to be king. To justify her kingship, Hatshepsut made up a story of her birth and commissioned artists to illustrate it. In the final scene Hatshepsut is presented to all the gods, who recognize her as king. To be sure there was no doubt about her destiny, Hatshepsut included in the text these words, supposedly from Amun himself, "This daughter of mine...I have appointed successor upon my throme.... It is she who will lead you. Obey her words and unite yourselves at her command." (6) In just seven years Hatshepsut transformed herself from a dutiful co-ruler into a deity. She wore a king's crown and clothing. She carried the king's staff. She even hung the king's ceremonial hairpiece, a braided beard, from her ears with string.

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    お願いします (6) Cleopatra went to the palace school with theother royal princes and princesses. She became fluent in nine languages and was the first member of her family who could speak Egyptian. Cleopatra had tremendous appeal. Even the Greek biographer Plutarch, who disapproved of her behavior, describes her in glowing terms: “The charm of her presence was irresistible, but there was an attraction in her person and conversation, together with a force of character, which showed in her every word and action. Everyone who met her fell under her spell.” (7) When Ptolemy died in 51 BCE, he left his kingdom to the 18-year-old Cleopatra. Even though she was old enough to rule, according to Egyptian law, she couldn't rule alone. Ptolemy's will set up joint rule by Cleopatra and her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy X III. (8) According to Egyptian tradition, pharaohs married their siblings or children to keep sower within the royal family. Cleopatra had to marry a brother or a son, and this consort would be her official husband. It would be a marriage of politics, not love. Cleopatra had no sons when she came to the throne, so her first co-ruler was Ptolemy XIII. (9) Cleopatra and Ptolemy ruled together for several years, but Cleopatra wasn't very good at sharing. She left her brother's name out of official documents─on purpose─and had her own picture and name stamped on Egyptian coins. This didn't go over very well with Ptolemy. Nor did it please the court officials of Alexandria, the capital city. (10) Alexandria's officials decided that Ptolemy would be easier to control than Cleopatra. so they plotted to overthrow the strong-willed queen. Knowing that her life was in danger, Cleopatra escaped to Syria, where she raised an army to help her regain power.

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    題名の通りです。お願いします! In 2002, it was admitted at a conference that the temperature control system in Sputnik” had failed. Also, the spacecraft had been designed quickly and little care was given to protecting the life inside. In fact, it was said that the capsule was designed poorly to test haw long a living creature could put up with dangerous conditions. The little while dog was a victim of humankind’s selfish aims and behavior. Oleg Gazenkov, the scientist who chose and prepared Laika for the mission, had this to say: “The more time passes, the more I am sorry about it. We did not learn enough from the mission to justify murdering an animal.” The little victim not only has a plaque in her honor, but she has appeared on postage stamps in many countries in honor of her sacrifice. Chocolate and cigarette brands have been named for her. There is a memorial website for her as well. More than 50 years after her death, Laika is still one of the most famous dogs of all time.

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    お願いします (10) It is not surprising that Rhodopis enjoyed music. Tombs and temple walls are covered with images of dancers and musicians. There were percussion instruments―drums, cymbals, and tambourines. There were wind instruments―flutes and trumpets. And there were stringed instruments―harps, lyres, and lutes. Everyone enjoyed music, from the pharaoh to the field worker. No one loved a festival more than the Egyptians. Crowds sang and clpped along with the musicians who paraded through the streets. Dancers performed for the revelers, moving with the grace of gymnasts―cartwheeling, twirling, flipping, and gyrating to the rhythm. Music and dance were integral to Egyptian daily life. Workers labored to the beat, priests praised the gods in music and motion. Musicians and dancers entertained at banquests and ushered the dead at funerals. So, for a young servant girl to sing to the animals at day's end is not surprising at all. (11) Rhodopis twirled so lightly her feet barely grazed the ground. Unknown to Rhodopis, she was dancing near the tree where the old man slept and her movement woke him. He was so taken by her grace that he decided right then and there that her feet should have the finest shoes in the kingdom. "He ordered her a special pair of slippers. The shoes were gilded with rose-red gold and the soles were leather. Now the servant girls really disliked her for they were jealous of her beautiful slippers." (12) News traveled to their village that the king was having a party. The entire kingdom was invited. On the day of the party the servant girls put on their finest clothes. They gave Rhodopis a long list of chores and handed her mounds of laundry to be washed in the river. They laughed at her washing the clothes as they poled down the river to the king's banquet.

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    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

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    お願いします (21) Augustus was a hard-working emperor. He traveled to many of the provinces under his care, but he was sickly and didn't expect to live very long. After his military campaign in Spain, Augustus returned to Rome and, in 23 BCE, became quite illand began thinking about a successor to follow him as Rome's ruler. His first choice had been his nephew Marcellus, but Marcellus had died young─not long after he had married Julia, the emperor's only daughter. (22) Julia played the key role in her father's search for a successor. After Marcellus died, she had to marry again, to a man of her father's choice. For her next husband, Augustus chose his general Agrippa, his closet friend and advisor. Although Julia was much younger than Agrippa, she dutifully married him, and the couple had five children. Then Agrippa died. (23) Although Augustus adopted his young grandsons as his heirs, he still needed a husband for Julia to protect the boys in the event of his own death. So he forced his stepson Tiberius to divorce his wife, even though Tiberius loved her very deeply. (He used to follow his former wife on the streets, weeping.) The marriage between Julia and Tiberius was a disaster: Julia was unfaithful, and Tiberius went into exile on the Greek island of Rhodes. Augustus was forced to banish his own daughter from Rome for her crime of adultery. (24) Julia must have spilled many tears over her father's marriage choices for her─especially the last one. She hated Tiberius, and he felt the same way about her. Even so, she would never have questioned her father's right to select her husbands. This was a parent's duty, especially if dad happened to rule the Roman Empire.

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    以下の英文の日本語訳で困っています。誰か教えてください。 (1)Of the 12 men who have walked on the moon, Harrison Schmitt, is the only one with scientific training in geology. (2)Schmitt's work on the Moon in 1972 ranks as one of the most exciting and productive episodes in the history of exploration. (3)His new book, Return to the Moon, is structured as a legal document, in which Schmitt argues for returning to the moon to mine the isotope helium-3. (4)He claims that because fossil fuels are limited in supply and because their extraction and use harm the environment, our world requires new sources of energy. (5)The ultimate solution, he suggests, is the generation of power by nuclear fusion-not of deuterium and tritium, as is usually proposed, but of deuterium and helium-3.