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お願いします (10) So what would a doctor's visit be like for someone like you in ancient Egypt? If you were a 13-year-old girl in ancient Egypt, you would likely be married and have a child. Suppose your child had a cough. If you were wealthy the doctor would come to your home. He or she (yes, there were women doctors) would begin by taking your child's pulse. "It is there that the heart speaks. It is there that every physician and every priest of Sekhmet places his fingers...." Next the doctor would ask you questions he or she had learned from medical books. These questions would be much like the questions a doctor would ask you today―with a few exceptions. The doctor would ask, "Do you have any enemies?" and "Did you get anyone angry lately?" because they believed that sometimes the ill wishes of others brought on the demons. The doctor would then chant a spell to drive out the evil spirits causing your child's illness. (11) Children were breast-fed until they were three in Egypt, and doctors knew that the health of the child was affected by what the nursing mother ate. In the case of a cough, the doctor would have you eat a mouse, so that through you, your nursing child would get the mouse medicine. Then to be sure that the spell went to the right person, the doctor would make an amulet, or charm. He'd wrap the bones of the mouse in a a linen cloth, tie it with seven knots, and hang it around your child's neck. Don't knock it. We have no cure for the common cold yet, either. But we have progressed in 6,000 years, haven't we? Our surgical blades may not be as sharp as Egyptian obsidian flakes. And our medications may have more bad side effects than the natural remedies that the ancients administered. But at least no one feeds you a mouse.


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(10) それでは、医者の往診は、古代エジプトではあなたのような人にとってどの様だったでしょうか? もしあなたが、古代エジプトで13才の少女であるならば、あなたは、たぶん結婚していて、子供がいるでしょう。 あなたの子供が咳をしていると考えてください。 あなたが裕福であれば、医者はあなたの家に来るでしょう。 彼/彼女(はい、女医がいました)は、あなたの子供の脈をとることから始めるでしょう。「心臓は、病状を語ります。 だから、セクメートの医者も神官もみんな、彼の指をそこに添えるのです ....」 次に、医者は、あなたに彼/彼女が医学書から学んだ質問をします。 これらの質問は、2,3の例外はありますが ― 医者が、今日あなたに尋ねる質問ととてもよく似ているでしょう。医者は「あなたには、敵がいますか?」、そして、「あなたは、最近誰かを怒らせましたか?」と尋ねるでしょう、なぜならば、時々他人の邪悪な願望が悪魔を連れてくると彼らが信じていたからです。 それから、あなたの子供の病気を引き起こしている悪霊を追い払うために、医者はまじないを繰り返すでしょう。 (11) エジプトでは、3才になるまで、子供たちは母乳で育てられました、それで、子供の健康が保育をする母親が食べたものに影響を受けるということを、医者は知っていました。 咳の場合、医者はあなたにハツカネズミを食べさせます、そうすれば、あなたを通して、あなたが保育をする子供はハツカネズミの薬を吸収することになります。 そして、まじないが正しい人にかけられたことを確実にするために、医者は、魔よけすなわちお守りを作ることでしょう。彼は、リネンの布でハツカネズミの骨を包み、7つの結び目でそれらを縛り、そして、それをあなたの子供の首のまわりに掛けるでしょう。 それを馬鹿にしてはいけません。 我々にも、まだありふれた風邪に対する治療法がないのですから。 しかし、我々は、6,000年で進歩したのでしょうか? 我々の外科用のメスは、エジプトの黒曜石の薄片ほど鋭くない場合があります。そして、我々の薬物は、古代人が行った自然治療より悪い副作用があるかもしれません。 しかし、少なくとも、誰もあなたにハツカネズミを食べさせはしません。





  • 日本語訳を! 1-(3)

    お願いします。  Life in Egypt revolved around the Great River. Our seasons come and go, marked by weather changes, but not so in Egypt, where the sun always shines. In Egypt the seasoms were marked by changes in the Nile. The first of the three seasons began in July. Egyptians called it akhet. During akhet, heavy rain in Ethiopia poured down from the highlands, swelling streams that fed the Nile. The banks of the Nile overflowed. Flooding may not sound like a good thing, but to the Egyptians it was a very good thing. Those floods left behind that black earth for planting. During the floods, farmlands were covered with water. Everyone uneasily watched the water rise. Would there be enough water? Would the Nile bring enough of that rich, black earth for farmers to plant their seeds? Or would there be too much water? Would whole villages be washed away? It was a delicate balance. If you were the supreme ruler, it would be your job to work it out with the gods so that things went well. You worked with Hapi, the god of the Great River, and more importantly, with the god in charge of the floods, the one with the ram's head―Khnemu. It was your job to be sure there was ma'at, or balance―not too much, not too little.  The Egyptians watched the flood levels obsessively. They measured the water and recorded it. They compared their measurements to the good years. They compared their measurements to the bad years. Everywhere you went, people would have had an opinion on this year's flood level. People talked in the market place. People talked along the roads, over dinner, while washing clothes at the riverbank. Would this be a good year? Would the granaries be full? Or would this be a bad year? Would they suffer the anguish they sang about in The Hymn to the Nile?

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(7)

    お願いします。  Despite Harkhuf's major expeditions and all the riches he and other traders brought back to Egypt―from Nubia with all its gold, Sinai with all its turquoise, and Punt with all its incense―it was this dancing pygmy that captured the heart of Pepi II. And the letter written by the boy-king remained so important to Harkhuf that at he end of his days he chose to record it on his tomb. If you were the supreme ruler of Egypt 4,000 years ago, what kinds of letters would you write? What songs would you sing to the Nile? Think about it while your servants fan you with ostrich feathers. But you might want to be careful how you order your teachers around.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(1)

    お願いします。  Imagine you are the king of Egypt. Strut about a bit, you can. After all, you're the supreme ruler―the Pharaoh, the Great One. You command armies. If you say fight, they fight to the death. You have thousands of servants―a few just to fan you with ostrich feathers when you're feeling a tad overheated. Your brothers and sisters, parents, teachers, and friends have to do what you order. YOU have inherited the right to make laws and dole out punishments. They had better behave. When you walk by, people fall to their knees and press their noses into the dirt. Some tremble when you pass―who knows what you might say to the gods the next time you speak to them? The crops grow because you say so. The Great River flows because you convince the gods it must. Now imagine wielding all that power when you are only six years old. That's how old you would be if you were the Pharaoh Pepi II in Egypt 4,000 years ago.  If you were Pepi II, your kingdom would have looked a lot like the barren, red landscape of Mars if it weren't for one thing―the Great River, a river we now call the Nile. Flowing north, the Nile cuts throtgh the deshret, or the red land. Limestone cliffs rise above the river like castle walls. The ancient Egyptians said the gods put those cliffs there to protect them. In fact, your entire kingdom is surrounded by natural barriers that protect it. To the east and west, the desert keeps out invaders. To the north, before the Nile dumps into the sea, it branches out into a triangle of marshland we call the Delta (it would be hard for your enemies to march through a swamp). And to the south the Nile protects your kingdom again, this time with a series of rocky rapids called the Cataracts.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) When the scribe out your name, you are afraid you heard wrong. Your knees feel a little weak. You've never left your village before. What will the world be like in the north across the Nile from the capital? (6) You rush home to pack your things. While piling your clothing in a square and tying it into a bundle, you suddenly feel too old for your mother's kisses. She's weeping behind you. But when you turn you see the pride in her eyes. Maybe she is thinking that if you help build the king's pathway to the heavens you will get to journey to the afterlife, too. (7) The barge is waiting by the dock. You and several others from the village hurry to board. The boat is already loaded with young men from villages even farther south. As the river currents carry you swiftly northward, you watch your village grow smaller and smaller until you aren't sure if you can see it. The ship is noisy with bragging men who have worked many flood seasons at Giza. Their voices fade, because suddenly you wish you were back in your village, watching your mother weave reed sandals, and not on a barge among men you don't know. (8) What was it like for young people who worked on the pyramids of King Khufu and the pyramids of his sons? To come from small farming villages, float up the Nile to the Giza Plateau and live in a barracks town of thousands? As they approached Giza, the Great Pyramid must have appeared to thrust out of the plateau as if it would pierce the sky. The monument was so massive that it took more than 4,000 years for humans to build anything taller. Until the Eiffel Tower was built in Paris in 1889, the Great Pyramid was the tallest building on earth. What would it have felt like to a simple Egyptian peasant to be part of such a huge project? How would you have felt that first day at Giza?

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳が分かりません。

    以下の英文を日本語に訳し、さらに英語で返事をしないといけないのですが意味がよく理解できません。 どなたか教えてください。 By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats. Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly. And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape. So what do you think about it?is it not incredible. I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things. 私が分かる範囲では、 「By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats.」 ・・・ところであなたは日本の首都を知っていますか。彼らはexperimentの一種でねずみと一緒です。そしてそのねずみは猫のそんなに怖い物ではなかった。 「Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly.」 ・・・どの科学者はそれが欲しく、供給したかったのか....? 「And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape.」 ・・・...? 「So what do you think about it?is it not incredible.」 ・・・あなたはこれについてどう思いますか? 「I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things.」 ・・・もし彼らがこれをまた人間の初めとしてできたのなら...? よろしくお願いいたします。

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-5

    お願いします!!続き But as a pilgrim,you would probably have been most interested in the large building that today is called the Great Bath.You would go first into a small bathing area that was supplied with a well.You'd take off your outer clothes,which were dusty from your journey,and wash yourself.Once you were clean,you would move on into a large courtyard.You might walk along the roofed edges of the courtyard to better admire the sacred pool in the center.When you were ready for the bath that would clean your spirit as well as yourbody,you would walk into the large pool by one of the two wide stairways that led down into the healing water. Travelers from both Mohenjo Daro and Harappa probably would have felt least at home in Dholavira,the third major city of the Indus.Dholavira,located in what is now the modern country of India,was on an island in an inland bay far to the south of Mohenjo Daro.The farming was not good in the areas around Dholavira-the climate was too dry-so most people supported themselves by herding,fishing,and trading.To collect and store enough rainwater,the people of Dholavira built stone tanks or reservoirs that stretched over more than a third of their city. Dry Dholavira may not have had much mud,but it had lots of stone.Most of its houses and drains were made of sandstone blocks.Dholavira was the grandest of the cities,with huge walls and ceremonial gates separating the quarters was even topped by an inscription of ten symbols,each one a little more than a foot tall. Dholavira's magnificent gates couldn't change the fact that,in general,the people of the Indus Valley cities did not choose to build huge monuments to a king or religious ruler.Their cities were simple and workaday,without unnecessary flourishes or great pieces of monumental art.But towering high bbove the plain,with gleaming red-brick gateways and light gray mud-brick walls,they still must have been a commanding sight.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(5)

    お願いします。 (14) When you arrive at the barracks, the smell of fresh baking bread makes your mouth water. Bakers pull loaves out of ovens large enough for you to stand in. You take some bread for yourself and then some fore your grandfather's Ka. You wander to the west side of the pyramid looking for his tomb. Your mother told you that his tomb is a miniature version of King Khufu's mer, except grandfather's is made from mud brick instead of stone. You pass the tomb of a husband and wife who worked on the Great Pyramid. You are one of the fdw who can read bits and pieces of hieroglyphs. What you read makes you quicken your pace past the tomb. It is cursed. "O all people who enter this tomb who will make evil against this tomb and destroy it; may the crocodile be against them on water, and snakes be against them on land; may the hippopotamus be against them on water, the scorpion against them on land." Even though you would never rob a tomb, the curse gives you the creeps, and you watch the ground ahead for snakes and scorpions. (15) Maybe you had better head back. The Overseer of All the King's Works will have assigned your job and you are anxious to see what you will be doing. Most of the farmers have to do all the heavy lifting, but maybe you will be lucky since you can read a little. Maybe you will be assigned a more skilled job. You hope that you can work on one of the boats in one of the boat pits. Wouldn't it be faaulous to be a boat builder for the afterlife? To help build the boat that King Khufu will use to navigate the stars?