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日本語訳を! 4-(4)

お願いします。  If the students' minds began to wander, the teacher would remind them with words like these in the Satire of the Trades, "I would have you love writing more than your mother and have you recognize its beauty." If the students continued to misbehave,the teacher might warn them about other professions like the "coppersmith at his toil at the mouth of his furnace his fingers like crocodile skin his stench worse than fish eggs." Or the gardener who carried a pole across his shoulders "and there is a great blister on his neck, oozing puss." Maybe then, practicing hieroglyphs wouldn't seem so bad. The students might even agree with the teacher that "it is greater than any profession, there is none like it on earth."  Once the scribes' schooling was done it was time to become an apprentice and to learn even more about the craft by serving a working scribe. We know from an inscription on a statue that a scribe named Bekenkhons spent 11 years as an apprentice in the royal stables after going to school for 4 years at the temple of Mut at Karnbk. There were plenty of job opportunities for scribes. Everything from personal letters to military secrets to magic spells was written by the scribes. Scribes calculated how many bricks it would take to build a wall, and how many loaves of bread it would take to feed the bricklayers. Scribes wrote out healing directions for doctors. They recorded births and deaths. Anything anyone wanted or needed written down required a scribe.  Over time, the slow-to-write hieroglyphs were replaced by an easier system of writing. Scribes still used the sacred way of writing on temples and tombs, but for everyday writing they used a shorthand they called sesh, which means "writing for documents." Later, the Greeks named this writing hieretic.


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 学生の心が、乱れ始めると、先生は、仕事の風刺の中にある次のような言葉で彼らに注意したものでした。「私は、あなたには、あなたのお母さんより書くことが好きになってもらいたい、あなたにその美しさを認めさせたい。」 学生が無作法なことをし続けるならば、先生は彼らに、たとえば、「銅職人は、炉の口で辛い仕事を行い、指は、ワ二の革の様になり、悪臭は、魚の卵よりもひどいのです」と言った様な、他の職業について警告するかもしれません。あるいは、肩に棒を担いだ庭師は、「彼の首には、ひどい水膨れがあり、膿みがにじみ出している。」 多分そうすれば、ヒエログリフを練習することは、それほど悪いようには思えないでしょう。 「それはどんな職業よりも素晴らしいです、それと同じような職業は、何もこの世にありません」と、学生は先生に同意さえするかもしれません。  一旦、書記の学校での教育がすむと、見習いになって、仕事をする書記を手伝うことによって、その技能についてさらに多くを学ぶ時期でした。 我々は、ある像に書かれた銘から、ベケンコーンズという名の書記が、カルンブクのムートと言う寺院にある学校に4年間通った後、国王の厩舎の見習いとして、11年を過ごしたということが、わかります。書記にとって、仕事を得る機会はたくさんありました。 個人の手紙から軍事機密、さらには、魔法の呪文まで、あらゆるものが、書記によって書かれました。 書記は、壁を建設するにはどれくらいのレンガが必要か、そして、れんが工に食事させるには、何個のパンが必要か計算しました。 書記は、医者のために治療手引きを書きました。 彼らは、出生と死を記録しました。 書き留められることを誰かが、望んだり必要とすれば、どんなことでも、書記を必要としました。  時を経て、書くのに時間のかかるヒエログリフは、より簡単な書記体系にとってかわられました。 書記は、寺院や墓には神聖な書記法をまだ使用しました、しかし、日常的な文書のために、彼らは、セシュと呼ばれる速記法を使用しました。セシュとは、「文書のための文字」と言う意味です。 後に、ギリシア人は、この文字をヒエラティックと名付けました。





  • 日本語訳を! 4-(3)

    お願いします。  To the ancient Egyptians the written word was more than just a few scratches in clay. To them, once written, words had an eternal life―a voice. They could even be dangerous. For protection the picture of a crocodile was ofen drawn with a spear through it, or the snake drawn with its head chopped off. Imagine being afraid to write the word "beast" because you believed it could come to life and get you―talk about nightmares!  Egyptians called their writing medu neter, which means "words of god." Thousands of years later the Greeks named there writings hieroglyphs, which means "sacred carvings," because they found them covering temples and tombs.  Very few people in ancient Egypt could read and write, perhaps only 1 percent of the population. Imagine being one of the few who possessed the power to give a word life. Imagine being the keeper of the "words of god." The scribes shared this mysterious skill with rulers and gods.  Learning hieroglyphs wasn't easy. There were more than 700 signs to memorize. It took students years to master them. While other children were outside playing, the students studying to be scribes spent their days bent over pieces of pottery, drawing and re-drawing the hieroglyphs. Students erasedtheir work with a wet rag and started again until they had pleased their teachers.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(6)

    お願いします。  Would Imhotep have saved the best for last? Would it have been at the end of the tour when he led King Djoser across the courtyard to the tomb? Finally they would have reached the base of the world's first pyramid and the world's first building constructed out of stone. Did Imhotep unroll a papyrus scroll and point to where he had planned the stacking of solid rectangles, each just a bit smaller than the one under it until a staircase rose 200 feet toward the sky? Would the construction noise have faded for King Djoser as he stood at the base of his eternal home? Even a god-king must feel awe at the sight of a structure larger than anything built before it―a structure built not from mud brick that crumbles and decays with time, but built from stone, a monument built to be everlasting.  The laborers ten stories above King Djoser and Imhotep would have looked like ants pushing stones and fitting them into that highest step. Perhaps it didn't happen on a day that King Djoser was there, but it did happen all too often―a loose stone would fall. Dropping from that height even a pebble could be deadly. Scuffed loose, it would seriously wound someone below if it struck him. Imhotep had set up a small hospital for his workers. Anyone injured on the job would be cared for. Imhotep was not only an architect; he was a doctor as well. He wrote detailed directions on how to recognize an injury and how to treat it. The oldest known medical document is believed by some to have been written about 3000 BCE by Imhotep. It is called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, named after the Egyptologist Edwin Smith who bought the papyrus in 1862. One of the many instructions in the papyrus is what to do if a stone falls on a worker's head:  Title:Instructions concerning a wound in his head penetrating to the bone of his skull.  Treatment:... bind it with fresh meat the first day and treat afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Patriotic writers like Livy took great pride in telling about brave Horatius and how he stopped the foreign attackers. Livy knew that the story was exaggerated and that his first-century readers wouldn't completely believe it. But he wasn't telling it to get the facts straight. He told it because it painted a picture of Roman courage at its best. Horatius represented the “true Roman.” (18) Even though Rome had abolished kingship, the Senate had the power to appoint a dictator in times of great danger. This happened in 458 BCE when the Aequi, an Italic tribe living west of Rome, attacked. The Senate sent for Cincinnatus, a farmer who had served as a consul two years earlier. The Senate's messengers found him working in his field and greeted him. They asked him to put on his toga so they might give him an important message from the Senate. Cincinnatus “asked them, in surprise, if all was well, and bade his wife, Racilia, to bring him his toga.... Wiping off the dust and perspiration, he put it on and came forward.” than the messengers congratulated Cincinnatus and told him that he had been appointed dictator of Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.

  • 18-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Prince Ashoka Maurya had two kinds of heroes.The first were the deities of the Vedic scriptures and the prince and princesses who served them in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These religious heroes taught him the satisfaction of living with honor and justice(dharma),the excitement of money and succesr(artha),and the contentment of enjoying the world's beauties and pleasures(kama).They taught him that if he filled his life with these qualities of honor,excellence,and beauty,he would reach moksha,when the cycle of life,death,and rebirth would end.   That all sounded good to Prince Ashoka.But so did the adventures of his second kind of hero-the warrior heroes like his father,King Bindusara,and his grandfather,Chandragupta.Ashoka loved fighting,and he was good at it.He may well have gone to a military academy like the one in Taxila.Brahmins and Kshatriya came there from all over the subcontinent to learn military science,including the use of the eight major eapoms.Brahmins shot bows,the Kshatriya were swordsmen,the Vaishya used the lance,and the Shudra wielded the mace-a heavy,spiked,hammerlike weapon.The teacher was skilled in all those weapons plus the disk(chakra),the spear,and fighting with his bare hands.Brahmin and Kshatriya students were also trained to command a war elephant.  Military academies like the one in Taxila show how important war was to the people of Ashoka's time.Each town had its own central armory,a strong building for storing weapons,run by a superintendet.The government kept such tight control over its weapons that all soldiers had to return their arms to the armory after they practiced each morning.No one could carry a weapon unless he had special permit.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-7

    お願いします!!続き Was there anything especially interesting in the debris?One thing was kind of cool.They melted their metal in clay containers called crucibles.But this clay melts at a lower temperature than metal,so they figured out how to temper the clay by adding straw.The straw insulated the clay so that it didn't melt.Adding straw also reduced the cracking that happens when you fire pots.The straw burns away,and there's room for the clay to expand where the straw used to be,so it doesn't crack.We also found some little dish things with powdered steatite on it.We think they used it kind of like Teflom.Steatite doesn't melt at these temperatures,so whatever was on it would slip off instead of melting together with clay. What do you like best about being an archaeologist?I like the combination of physical work and mental work and plain old accounting.I like that sometimes you're inside,sometimes you're outside.Sometimes you're being very scientific.Sometimes you'se just standing there,shoveling dirt.But mostly it's solving puzzles.We all like working out puzzles.I've noticed that a lot of archaeologists like murder mysteries.It's all about curiosity.That's the real draw-you're curious about people that lived before. What do you not like about it?I've managed to avoid all the things I was sure I wouldn't like,like working in swamps and stuff.It's not easy for me to write,but writing is a very important part of what I do,so I'm comstantly trying to be a better writer. What has surprised you the most about being an archaeologist?What I had to get accustomed to is that you never find out the answer,because there are always more questions.And if you don't like surprises,you won't like being an archaeologist.It's one surprise after another.