• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします!! Here and there,mysterious mounds 50 feet tall lie scattered across the countryside like a giant's abandoned game of checkers.Even though some of the mounds are huge-as big as hundreds of football fields-there's not much to see.Some crumbling mud bricks.A few tumbled brick walls and some blocks of stone.We are in the Punjab,a quarter of a million square miles of mostly flat,dry farmland.There's nothing worth paying attention to here,unless of course you are an arbhaeologist,or an engineer who needs some gravel to build a railway. In the early 1850s,British engineers began to build a railroad through the Punjab.They usually laid the rails on a foundation of crushed rock,but there's not much rock in the Punjab.So the engineers decided to use the old bricks that littered the mounds.An archaeologist named Alexander Cunningham who had been digging in the area tried to stop them.He knew that the mounds covered the remains of ancient civilizations.He was hoping to find evidence of Buddhist times,which began about 500 BCE.But even he couldn't find anything in the ruins that seemed important-just some broken pottery and a few stone tools.And one other thing:a small carved stone seal.


  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数85
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

あちこちに、高さ50フィートの不可解な小山が、巨人が放置したチェッカーのゲームのように田園地方の全域に散在しています。たとえ小山のいくつかが巨大である ― 何百ものフットボール競技場と同じくらい大きい ― としても、見るべきものはあまりたくさんありません。いくつかの砕けた泥レンガ。2、3の倒れたれんが塀といくつかの石のブロックです。我々は、25万平方マイルの大部分が平らな、乾いた農地である、パンジャブにいます。もちろんあなたが考古学者か鉄道を造るためにいくらかの砂利を必要とするエンジニアでない限り、ここに注意を払う価値があるものは何もありません。 1850年代初期に、英国のエンジニアは、パンジャブを通過する鉄道を築き始めました。彼らは通常圧砕された岩の基礎の上にレールを敷設しましたが、パンジャブには多くの岩がありません。それで、エンジニアは、小山に散らばる古いレンガを使うことに決めました。その地域で発掘していたアレキサンダー・カニングハムという名の考古学者が、彼らを止めようとしました。彼は、小山が古代文明の遺跡を覆っているということを知っていました。彼は仏教時代の証拠を見つけたいと思っていました、仏教時代は紀元前500年ごろにはじまりました。しかし、彼は、その遺跡では重要と思える物は何も見つけることが出来ませんでした ― ただの、いくつかの壊れた陶器類と2、3の石の道具だったのです。それから、他にもう一つありました: 小さな彫刻を施された石の印鑑でした。





  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    Going to the shore on the first morning of the vacation, Jerry stopped and looked at a wild and rocky bay, and then over to the crowded beach he knew so well from other years. His mother looked back at him. “Are you tired of the usual beach, Jerry?” “Oh, no!” he said quickly, but then said, “I’d like to look at those rocks down there.” “Of course, if you like.” Jerry watched his mother go, then ran straight into the water and began swimming. He was a good swimmer. He swam out over the gleaming sand and then he was in the real sea. He saw some older, local boys — men, to him — sitting on the rocks. One smiled and waved. It was enough to make him feel welcome. In a minute, he had swum over and was on the rocks beside them. Then, as he watched, the biggest of the boys dived into the water, and did not come up. Jerry gave a cry of alarm, but after a long time the boy came up on the other side of a big dark rock, letting out a shout of victory. Immediately the rest of them dived and Jerry was alone. He counted the seconds they were under water: one, two, three… fifty… one hundred. At one hundred and sixty, one, then another, of the boys came up on the far side of the rock and Jerry understood that they had swum through some gap or hole in it. He knew then that he wanted to be like them. He watched as they swam away and then swam to shore himself. Next day he swam back to the rocks. There was nobody else there. He looked at the great rock the boys had swum through. He could see no gap in it. He dived down to its base, again and again. It took a long time, but finally, while he was holding on to the base of the rock, he shot his feet out forward and they met no obstacle. He had found the hole. In the days that followed, Jerry hurried to the rocks every morning and exercised his lungs as if everything, the whole of his life, depended on it.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-2

    お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 3

    お願いします!! 続き Have you ever met someone who looks totally ordinary,but turns out to have a really interesting life? Maybe she plays in a rock band.Or he designs theme park rides.The people of the Indus civilization left no great monuments behind.But that's because they were too busy making a good life for themselves,lives whose richness was in the living,not the stuff they left behind.It wasn't until the early 1920s that archaeologists realized that there might be more in the mounds of crumbling brick than met the eye.And so,30 years after Sir Alexander Cunningham's death in 1893,archaeologists finally rediscovered the great city nf Harappa. Harappa was built on a low ridge between the Ravi and Satluj Rivers.It was a good location for a city.The land was fertile and villagers could hunt for animals and gather wood for fuel in the ndarby forests.The rivers kept the fields around the city well watered,and the mud from floods made the land fertile.Lakes full of fish sparkled in the distance.Traveling merchants liked to stop in Harappa,where they could get a good meal and a snug bed safe behind the mud-brick city walls. As it happens,Harappa's city walls are as mysterious as its script,the signs and symbols Cunningham found on the stone seal.Building and taking care of town walls must have been expensive and complicated.The earliest city wall at Harappa was 8 feet wide (2.5 meters) and may have stood more than 13 feet (4 meters) high.Archaeologists have added up the work hours required to dig the clay,shape and dry the mud bricks,mix the mortar that joined the bricks together,bring materials to the site by oxcart,and then actually build the wall.They estimate that it would have taken more than 500 people a full three months to construct a city wall when Harappa was still a small city.The city walls must have been very important-but why?

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    難しくて訳せません。 明日提出の課題なのですが、全く手が付けられません。 どなたか助けてください。 1. Never before in the history of civilization had it been so generally taken for granted that man's freedom, his dignity, his happiness, even what we call his "prosperity", were the only things that count. 2. There are no feminine characteristics more marked than a passion for detail and an unerring memory. Women can give you an exact and circumstantial account of some quite insignificant conversation with a friend years before; and what is worse, they do. 3. He had sunk in up to his chest. I anchored my ax and held fast. But he didn't need help. He crawled out by himself. He couldn't see the bottom. Crevasses are to mountaineering what sand traps are to golf; you put the ball in the sand trap once in a while, and that's part of the game. 4. It is gnerally accepted that death is the end of life. What we call "animals", it seems, are not aware of life itslf. And they do not know abou the existence of death,either. It is only human beings that "discover" death, are troubled about it, think about it, and even publish magazines featuring special articles on death. 5. The heat from a wood fire is irregular, sometimes very hot and then cooling suddenly. A charcoal fire, on the othe hand, burns slowly and with a steady even heat. And what is even more important in metal work, you can raise or lower this heart, at will, by the amount of blast you force from your bellows.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳にするのに、困っています。

    次の英文を日本語訳にしたいのですが、うまく訳せません。だれか教えてください。お願いします。 (1)Even there, however, helium-3 is present only in concentrations between 10 and 20 parts per billion. (2)We must mine hundreds of millions of tons of lunar soil to extract a ton of helium-3. (3)Schmitt has looked at this problem in some detail, and he outlines a plan for mining helium-3 on the moon to feed a commercial industry for generating power here on earth. (4)After a brief introduction and a short discussion of the data obtained from the Apollo Moon missions, Schmitt considers the future of energy production on earth, concluding that all of the various proposed alternatives to fossil fuels have problems. (5)However, he maintains that mining the moon for helium-3 is a viable solution to our energy problems. 問題は以上です。特に、(4)がめちゃくちゃ長くて、どう訳したらいいかさっぱりです。

  • 日本語訳を!!

    (9) When the herdsman found Romulus and Remus, he took them home. He and his wife raised the boys their own. The twins grew to be brave, manly, and noble. They roamed the countryside like ancient Robin Hoods, often saving innocent people from danger and persecution. (10) Romulus and Remus eventually discovered who they really were and decided to found a new city near the Tiber River, where they had been rescued as babies. But the brothers didn't get along very well, and they disagreed about where the city should be built. They tried to settle their argument through divination, using the path of birds in the sky to figure out the wishes of the gods. They decided to watch some vultures flying overhead. Romulus tried to trick Remus, pretending to have spotted more vultures than he actually saw, and then Remus made fun of Romulus. The brothers got into a fight, and Romulus killed Remus. (11) Romulus buried his brother and then, with his followers, built a new city on the Palatine Hill and circled it with strong, stone walls. As the city grew, it eventually enclosed seven hills and took the name of its founder, Romulus―or Rome. The Romans dated everything that happened after that “frod the founding of the city”in 753 BCE. For more than a thousand years, they used a calender that began in that year. (12) Some Romans claimed that Romulus and Remus were the sons of Mars, the god of war. Later Romans believed that this connection to Mars explained Romulus's cruel attack on the Sabines, a tribe that lived in small, unprotected villages near Rome. Romulus was convinced that Rome would become great through war, so he pretended to invite his Sabine neighbors to a festival. But then he led the Romans in a sudden attack. The soldiers seized 30 unmarried women and ran off―taking the Sabine women home as their wives.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。。

    日本語訳をお願いします。。 (自然な意訳よりも単語の意味がわかる直訳が知りたいです) 1.Beware salespeople who promise offers that seem too good to be trusted. 2.Salespeople are under the supervision of the floorwalker. 3.He would come and confront me and persisting in asking me. 4.Already, efforts are underway to make that exemption permanent. 5.Timber cutting and logging operations remain labor intensive, in spite of efforts to limit the manpower required. 6.The position you're being considered for is a lateral move, but it could eventually lead to a promotion. 7.Dust contains numerous particles that can abrade your machine's internals. 8.After she received the award, she expressed her gratitude to the staff for all of their support. 9.The organization was committed to excellence and invested in employee training and quality control. 10.We are dedicated to raise your perception of what a luxury hotel was meant to be and to inspire your finest performance. 11.Contrary to popular belief, however, it is not all fire and brimstone there. 12.Discretion in hiring is a must these days and we provide the tools to do so unobtrusively, yet effectively. よろしくお願いします。。