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生物 論文の和訳

下記を和訳してください 1)We are much indebted to Dr.Jerry Donohue for constans advise and criticism,especially on inter-atomic distances.We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr.M.H.F.Wilkins,Dr.R.E.Franklin and their co-workers at King's College,London.One of us (J.D.W.) has been aided by a fellowship from the National Foundstion for Infantiele Paralysis.

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1) 我々は、ジェリー・ドノヒュー博士から、特に原子間距離に関しては、常々の助言や批評をいただき、非常に御恩を受けています。 我々は、M. H. F.ウィルキンズ博士、R. E.フランクリン博士、及び、ロンドン、キングズ・カレッジの彼らの同僚の未発表の実験の結果や考えの全般的な自然についての知識によっても刺激を受けました。 我々の1人(J. D. W.)は、全国小児麻痺財団からの研究奨励制度による援助を受けました。 <参考> fellowship http://eow.alc.co.jp/fellowship/UTF-8/

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  • 和訳してください!!(後半)

    The structure is an open one, and its water content is rather high. At lower water contents we would expect the bases to tilt so that the structure could become more compact. The novel feature of the structure is the manner in which the two chains are held together by the purine and pyrimidine bases. The planes of the bases are perpendicular to the fibre axis. They are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single base from the other chain, so that the two lie side by side with identical z-co-ordinates. One of the pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine for bonding to occur. The hydrogen bonds are made as follows: purine position 1 to pyrimidine position 1; purine position 6 to pyrimidine position 6. If it is assumed that the bases only occur in the structure in the most plausible tautomeric forms (that is, with the keto rather than the enol configurations) it is found that only specific pairs of bases can bond together. These pairs are: adenine (purine) with thymine (pyrimidine), and guanine (purine) with cytosine (pyrimidine). In other words, if an adenine forms one member of a pair, on either chain, then on these assumptions the other member must be thymine; similarly for guanine and cytosine. The sequence of bases on a single chain does not appear to be restricted in any way. However, if only specific pairs of bases can be formed, it follows that if the sequence of bases on one chain is given, then the sequence on the other chain is automatically determined. It has been found experimentally (3, 4) that the ratio of the amounts of adenine to thymine, and the ratio of guanine to cytosine, are always very close to unity for deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is probably impossible to build this structure with a ribose sugar in place of the deoxyribose, as the extra oxygen atom would make too close a van der Waals contact. The previously published X-ray data (5, 6) on deoxyribose nucleic acid are insufficient for a rigorous test of our structure. So far as we can tell, it is roughly compatible with the experimental data, but it must be regarded as unproved until it has been checked against more exact results. Some of these are given in the following communications. We were not aware of the details of the results presented there when we devised our structure, which rests mainly though not entirely on published experimental data and stereochemical arguments. It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material. Full details of the structure, including the conditions assumed in building it, together with a set of co-ordinates for the atoms, will be published elsewhere. We are much indebted to Dr. Jerry Donohue for constant advice and criticism, especially on interatomic distances. We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. M.H.F. Wilkins, Dr. R.E. Franklin and their co-workers at King"s College, London. One of us (J.D.W.) has been aided by a fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.

  • 生物英語論文の訳

    下記の英文を訳してください 1)We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Copey.They kindly made their manuscript available to us in advance of publication.Their model consists of three inter-twind chains,with the phosphates near the fibreaxis,and the bases on the outside.In our opinion,this structure is unsatisfactory for two reasons:(1)We believe that the material which gives the X-ray diagrans is the salt,not the free acid.Without the acidic hydrogen atoms it is not clear what forces would hold the structure toegher,especially as the negatively charged phophates near the axis will repel each other.(2)Some of the van der Waals distances appear to be too small. 3)Another three-chain structure has also been suggested by Fraser(in the press).In his model the phophates are on the outside and the bases on the inside,linked together by hydrogen bonds.This atructure as described is rather ill-defined,and for this reason we shall not comment on it.

  • 生物英語論文の訳

    下記の英文を訳してください。 1)We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Copey.They kindly made their manuscript available to us in advance of publication.Their model consists of three inter-twind chains,with the phosphates near the fibreaxis,and the bases on the outside.In our opinion,this structure is unsatisfactory for two reasons:(1)We believe that the material which gives the X-ray diagrans is the salt,not the free acid.Without the acidic hydrogen atoms it is not clear what forces would hold the structure toegher,especially as the negatively charged phophates near the axis will repel each other.(2)Some of the van der Waals distances appear to be too small. 2)Another three-chain structure has also been suggested by Fraser(in the press).In his model the phophates are on the outside and the bases on the inside,linked together by hydrogen bonds.This atructure as described is rather ill-defined,and for this reason we shall not comment on it.

  • 生物論文の訳

    下記の英文を訳してください 1)The previously published X-gen data on deoxyribose nucleic acid are insufflcient for a rigorous test of our structure.So far as we can tell,it is roughly compatible with the experimental data,but it must be regarded as unproved until it has been checked against more exact results.Some of these are given in the following communications.We were not aware of the details of the results presented there when we devised our structure,which rests mainly though not entirely on published experimental data and stereo-chemical arguments.

  • この文章の和訳をお願いします。

                            Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank Professor C.Hayashi and Dr.K. Nakazawa for their useful advice and continuous encouragement. The numerical calculations were mainly performed by FACOM M-200 at Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Nos. 511409, 56110009 and 57103006). The publication of this paper is indebted to the aid of Central Research Laboratory of Osaka Institute of Technology. よろしくお願いします。

  • 生物論文の和訳

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  • 生物論文を和訳2

    下記の英文を訳してください 1)There is a residue on each chain every 3・4 A.in the z-direc-tion.We have assumed an angle of 36゜ between structure repeats after 10 residues on each chain,that is,after 34 A. The distance of a phophates atom from the fibre axis is 10 A. As the phophates are on the outside,cations have easy access to them. 2)The structure is an open nne,and its water contents we would expect the bases to tilt so that the structure could become more compact. 3)The novel feature of the structure is the manner in which the two chains are held together by the purine and pyrimidine bases.The planes of the bases are perpendicular to the fibre axis.They are joined together in pairs,a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single bases from the other chain,so that the two lie side by side with identical z-co-ordinates.One of the pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine for bonding to occur.

  • 生物論文の和訳

    下記の論文を訳してください。 1)We wish to put forward a radically different structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid.This structure has two helical chains cach colied round the same axis(see diagram).We have made the usual chemical assumptions,namely,that each chain consists of phophates di-ester groups joining B-D-deoxy-ribofuranose residues with 3',5' linkages.The two chains (but not their bases) are related by a dyad perpendicular to the fibreaxis.Both chains follow right-handed helices,but owing to the dyad the sequences of the atoms in the two chains run in opposite directions.Each chains loosely resembles Fur-berg's model No.1 ; that is,the bases are on the inside of the helix and the phophates on the outside.The configuration of the sugar and the atoms near it is close to Furberg's 'standard configuration',the sugar being roughly perpendicular to the attached base.

  • 生物 論文の和訳

    下記の英文を和訳してください 1)In other words,if an adenine forms one member of a pair,on either chain,then on these assumptions the member must be thymine;similarly for guanine and cytosine.The sequences of bases on a single chain dose not appear to be restricted in any way.However,if only specific pairs of bases can be formed,it follows that if the sequence on the other chain is autmatically determined. 2)It has been found experimentally that the ratio of the amounts of adenine to thymine,and the ratio of guanine to cytosine,are always very close to unity for deoxyribose nucleic acid. 3)It is probably impossible to build this structure with a ribose sugar in plase of the deoxyribose,as the extra oxygen atom would make too close a vander Waals contact.

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