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The response spectrum curves, which are a type of influence diagram for earthquake loads, describe the important characteristics of strong earthquake ground motions by exhibiting their effects on structures. The spectra also provide a logical measure of the intensity of earthquake ground motion which has engineering sugnificance.by means of the spectrum curves the apparently anomalous behavior of some structures during earthquakes can be explained. If the point of view is taken that structures should be designed to remain  elastic(without damage)when subjected to earthquake ground motion, a satisfactory procedure can be developed using the spectrum curves.it is true that this would be more laborious than the presently used equivalent static methods but it would not be excessively so. the real difficulty arises from the fact that in this case the structures would have to be designed for lateral loads much larger than are not prescribed by building codes. It does not seem economically justiciable that in a seismically active region all buildings should be designed to survive the strongest possible ground motion without any damage. It is more reasonable to take the point of view that the design should be such that the structures will survive the more frequent, moderate ground motions without damage but in the more rare event of very strong ground motion , damage would be tolerated so long as it was not a hazard to life and limb, this is the usual point of view of engineers in earthquake areas, it is seen from the material presented in this paper that this point of view is equivalent to requiring two different design analyses for each structure. One would be to ensure that no damage resulted from moderate, elastic vibrations, and the other would be a(limit design)type of analysis to ensure that there was sufficient energy-absorbing capacity to give an adequate factor of safety against collapse in the event of extremely strong ground motion.


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  • 英文和訳お願いします。

    英文和訳お願いします。 In general, my music is just quiet because it’s not the kind of music that is supposed to be loud, there is not really anything more to it than that. It would be pretty silly to blast strings and piano at 105db. こちらなのですが、英文和訳をお願いします。どうもthere is not really anything more to it than that.のあたりが不明で・・・。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    In truth,however,if we refer to the plans of conciliation proposed,we find them at variance with each other and mutually destructive.The conciliators are not agreed among themselves,and each holds the views of the other to be untenable and unsafe, The ground is perpetually being shifted as the advance of geological science may require.The plain meaning of the Hebrew record is unscrupulously tampered with,in general the pith of the whole process lies in divesting the text of all meaning whatever.We are told that,Scripture not being designed to teach us natural philosophy,it is in vain to attempt to make out a cosmogony from its statements. If the first chapter of Genesis conveys to us no information concerning the origin of the world, it's statements can't indeed be contradicted by modern discovery.But it is absurd to call this harmony. Statements such as that above quoted are,we conceive, little calculated to be serviceable to the interests of theology ,still less to religion and morality .

  • 和訳お願いします。

    友人の代わりです。"If you were to accept that position it would only be for a few weeks as it is coming out of commission" でit以下がの意味がどうしてもわからないそうです。教えてください。

  • 和訳を教えて下さい。

    和訳を教えて下さい。 アメリカの401Kを解約した際に、送られてきたメールです。 「That is correct. Due to regulatory guidelines we are required to maintain the account information for a period of 7 years in the event that it is determined that any additional funds are due to you. At that point the account would be reopened to allow the funds to be paid to you. The account would be permanently closed after that time frame.」 どなたか、よろしくお願い致します。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    The question of the meaning of the word bara,'create,'has been previously touched upon;it has been acknowledged by good critics that it doesn't of itself necessarily imply 'to make out of nothing upon the simple ground that it is found [to be]uesd in cases where such a meaning would be inapplicable . But the difficultly of giving to it the interpretation contended for by Dr Buckland and of uniting with this the assumption of a six days' creation, such as that described in Genesis, at a comparatively recent period, lies in this,that the heaven itself is distinctly said to have been formed by the division of the waters on the second day. Consequently , until. The first Mosaic day of creation, there was no sky, no local habitation for the sun,moon and stars, even supposing those bodies to have been included in the original material. Dr Buckland doesn't touch this obvious difficulty, without which his argument that the sun and moon might have been contemplated as pre-existing , although they aren't stated to have been set in the heaven until the forth day, is of no value at all.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    The point is that, notwithstanding special difficulties in assigning this or that being to one or the other class, the psychological classification which I advocate resembles the zoological classification which I have cited ; it is a valid classification, inasmuch as it recognizes a distinction where there is certainly something to distinguish. For even if we take the most mechanical view of mental processes that is possible, and suppose that conscious intelligence plays no part whatever in determining action, there still remains the fact that such conscious intelligence exists, and that prior to certain actions it is always affected in certain ways. Therefore, even if we suppose that the state of things is, so to speak, accidental, and that the actions in question would always he performed in precisely the same way whether or not they were thus connected with consciousness, it would still remain desirable, for scientific purposes, that a marked distinction should be drawn between cases of activity that proceed without, and those that proceed with this remarkable association with consciousness. As the phenomena of subjectivity are facts at any rate no less real than those of objectivity, if it is found that some of the latter are invariably and faithfully mirrored in those of the former, such pheno mena, for this reason alone, deserve to be placed in a distinct scientific category, even though it were proved that the mirror of subjectivity might be removed without affecting any of the phenomena of objectivity.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    It is refreshing to return to the often-echoed remark, that it could not have been the object of a Divine revelation to instruct mankind in physical science, man having had faculties bestowed upon him to enable him to acquire this knowledge by himself. This is in fact pretty generally admitted; but in the application of the doctrine, writers play at fast and loose with it according to circumstances. Thus an inspired writer may be permitted to allude to the phenomena of nature according to the vulgar view of such things, without impeachment of his better knowledge; but if he speaks of the same phenomena assertively, we are bound to suppose that things are as he represents them, however much our knowledge of nature may be disposed to recalcitrate. But if we find a difficulty in admitting that such misrepresentations can find a place in revelation, the difficulty lies in our having previously assumed what a Divine revelation ought to be. If God made use of imperfectly informed men to lay the foundations of that higher knowledge for which the human race was destined, is it wonderful that they should have committed themselves to assertions not in accordance with facts, although they may have believed them to be true? On what grounds has the popular notion of Divine revelation been built up? Is it not plain that the plan of Providence for the education of man is a progressive one, and as imperfect men have been used as the agents for teaching mankind, is it not to be expected that their teachings should be partial and, to some extent, erroneous? Admitted, as it is, that physical science is not what the Hebrew writers, for the most part, profess to convey, at any rate, that it is not on account of the communication of such knowledge that we attach any value to their writings, why should we hesitate to recognise their fallibility on this head?

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    While writing the first chapters of the present volume, I intended that the latter half of it should be devoted to a con sideration of this question, and therefore in " Animal Intelli gence " I said that such would be the case. But as the work proceeded it soon became evident that a full treat ment of this question would require more space than could be allowed in a single volume, without seriously curtailing both the consideration of this question itself and also that of mental evolution, as this is exhibited in the animal kingdom. I therefore determined on restricting the present essay to a consideration of mental evolution in animal, and on reserv ing for subsequent publication all the material which I have collected beaiing on mental evolution in man. I cannot yet say how long it will be before I can feel that I am justified in publishing my researches concerning this branch of my subject ; for the more that I have investigated it, the more have I found that it grows, as it were, in three dimensions— in depth, width, and complexity. But at whatever time I shall be able to publish the third and final instalment of my work, it will of course rest upon the basis supplied by the present essay, as this rests upon the basis supplied by the previous one.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    It is, then, adaptive action by a living organism in cases where the inherited machinery of the nervous system does not furnish data for our prevision of what the adaptive action must necessarily be — it is only in such cases that we recognize the element of mind. In other words, ejectively con sidered, the distinctive element of mind is consciousness, the test of consciousness is the presence of choice, and the evidence of choice is the antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action between two or more alternatives. To this analysis it is, however, needful to add that, although our only criterion of mind is antecedent uncertainty of adjustive action, it does not follow that all adjustive action in which mind is con cerned should be of an antecedently uncertain character; or, which is the same thing, [it does'nt follow] that because some such action may be of an antecedently certain character, we should on this account regard it as non-mental. Many adjustive actions which we recognize as mental are, nevertheless, seen before hand to be, under the given circumstances, inevitable ; but analysis would show that such is only the case when we have in view agents whom we already, and from independent videuce, regard as mental.

  • 和訳をお願いしますヾ(_ _*)

    Dr. Eleni Linos is a researcher in the dermatology department at the Stanford University Medical Center. She and her team wanted to find out if skin cancer was truly becoming a more common disease, or if the number of cases had increased only because of a better ability to detect cancer. The level of knowledge and quality of equipment used in the detection or diagnosis of cancer has certainly improved incredibly in recent years. It thus would not be surprising to find that the incidence of skin cancer, that is, the number of new cases that occur in a population during a particular time, had stayed the same despite the observed increase in the number of patients. To investigate this question, Dr. Linos and her team analyzed 70,596 cases of skin cancer. They found that the increase in cases occurred for tumors of all thicknesses. This observation was important because better diagnoses would be expected to primarily find newer cancers, which would be thinner than older cancers. After analyzing the number of cases in other ways, the researchers concluded that the base incidence level truly is increasing. Their advice: avoid the sun, and see your doctor. よろしくお願いします<(_ _)>