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The response spectrum curves, which are a type of influence diagram for earthquake loads, describe the important characteristics of strong earthquake ground motions by exhibiting their effects on structures. The spectra also provide a logical measure of the intensity of earthquake ground motion which has engineering sugnificance.by means of the spectrum curves the apparently anomalous behavior of some structures during earthquakes can be explained. If the point of view is taken that structures should be designed to remain  elastic(without damage)when subjected to earthquake ground motion, a satisfactory procedure can be developed using the spectrum curves.it is true that this would be more laborious than the presently used equivalent static methods but it would not be excessively so. the real difficulty arises from the fact that in this case the structures would have to be designed for lateral loads much larger than are not prescribed by building codes. It does not seem economically justiciable that in a seismically active region all buildings should be designed to survive the strongest possible ground motion without any damage. It is more reasonable to take the point of view that the design should be such that the structures will survive the more frequent, moderate ground motions without damage but in the more rare event of very strong ground motion , damage would be tolerated so long as it was not a hazard to life and limb, this is the usual point of view of engineers in earthquake areas, it is seen from the material presented in this paper that this point of view is equivalent to requiring two different design analyses for each structure. One would be to ensure that no damage resulted from moderate, elastic vibrations, and the other would be a(limit design)type of analysis to ensure that there was sufficient energy-absorbing capacity to give an adequate factor of safety against collapse in the event of extremely strong ground motion.

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