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They also used a mouse to move and point to positions on the screen, making applications lids to use. However, these two computers were incompatible with IBM standard and even with the Apple II. Lisa Computer was soon dropped mostly because it was expensive, ($10,000). The Macintosh too was loosing momentum because of limited software and low performance. By 1984, the company was in crisis. A few months before Lisa and Macintosh introduction, Apple hired John Sculley as its president and CEO. He was then 44 and previously president of Pepsi’s beverage operations, where he was in charge of marketing and advertising. At Apple, Scu11ey’s job was to provide the operational expertise and Steve Jobs the technical direction and vision. But Jobs had to resign from Apple in 1985 a dispute with Sculley and App1e’s board of directors. Apple introduced a new Mac between 1986 and 1990 that matched the newest IBM personal computers in speed and sales exploded (see Exhibit 1). The important thing with this new Mac was char, it offered superior software and a variety of peripherals (e.g., laser printers) and that gave apple a great advantage in the market - the easiest computer to use in the industry with unmatched capabilities at desktop publishing. The strategy adopted by Apple as the only manufacturer of its hardware made and software made the company very Profitable in the By 1990, Apple had more than $1 billion in cash and more I than $5.5 billion in sales. Return on Equity was at 32 percent and was one of the best in the industry. Market share was at 10 percent.


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  さらに、それらは、使用する適用蓋を作って、移動し、かつスクリーン上の位置を指すためにマウスを使用した。 しかしながら、これらの2台のコンピューターはIBMの標準、およびアップル IIとさえ両立し難かった。 ほとんどそれが高価だったので(10,000ドル)、リサ・コンピューターはすぐに落とされた、 マッキントッシュは、制限のあるソフトウェアおよび低機能のために勢いをまた解いていた。 1984年までに、会社は危機にあった。 リサおよびマッキントッシュ・イントロダクションの数か月前に、アップルはその社長兼CEOとしてジョン・スカリーを雇った。 売買と広告を担当していた場合、彼はそのとき44歳だった。また、以前に、ペプシの社長は飲料オペレーションである。 アップルでは、Scu11eyのジョブは、運用上の専門知識およびスティーブ・ジョブスに技術的な方向およびビジョンを供給することだった。 しかし、ジョブズは、1985年にりんごをSculleyおよびApp1eの重役会との論争を辞職しなければならなかった。 アップルは、速度で最新のIBMのパソコンと一致した1986年と1990年の間に新しいマックを紹介した。また、販売は爆発した(証拠物件1を参照)。 この新しいマックとの重要なものは炭だった。それは優れたソフトウェアおよび様々な周辺装置(例えばレーザープリンター)を提示した。また、それは、りんごに市場での大きな利点を与えた-デスクトップ・パブリッシングで無比の能力を備えた産業の中で使用する、最も容易なコンピューター。 作られたそのハードウェアとソフトウェアの唯一のメーカーとしてアップルによって採用された戦略は、会社を非常に有益にした‥‥の中で‥‥1990年までに、アップルは現金に10億ドル以上を持っていた‥‥そしてより多く‥‥私‥‥販売で55億ドルより。 株主資本利益率は32パーセントであり、産業での最上のうちの1つだった。 市場占有率は10パーセントであった。  



大変助かりました。 本当にありがとうございました。


  • 英語を日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    In 1991, the computer industry experienced its worst year in history. Average return on sales dropped to under 4 percent and the ROE (Return On Equity) was under 11 percent. Worldwide, PC revenues dropped for the first time by nearly 10 perœnt. Apple continued to perform better than its competitors in the industry, but the intensity of competition was putting pressure on Apple’s margins. “Our challenge,” said John Sculley, Apple Computer’s CEO, “is not only to stay ahead of our competition, but we have to find some way to change the rules of the game. If computer manufacturers continue to make and sell commodities, everyone in onr' business will suffer.” The objective then was to change a $50 billion global industry. Sculley certainly knew that was not going to be an easy task, but he believed that Apple was one of the only companies that could do it, Therefore, for Apple‘s next strategy session, he asked his to address two key questions: (1) could Apple change the structure of the industry, and if so how? And (2) what other alternatives were available?

  • 英語を日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    Apple Brief History Steve Wozniak (Woz) and Steve Jobs triggered the history of Apple when they started the Apple I computer in the Jobs family garage in Cupertino. They formed Apple Computer Inc. on April 1976. They had already sold 200 Apple I computers, mostly to hobbyist, when they managed to obtain venture capital.Jobs vision was to make the personal computer easy to use for nontechnical people. His stated vision through 1992 was “to change the world through technology.” The concept was one computer for every man,woman, and child. Jobs and Woz really started to change their company and the world in March 1977 when they announced the Apple Il.. Apple sold more than 100,000 Apple IIs by the end of 1980, generating over $100 million.” They mostly sold. into homes and schools, and the company was recognized as the industry leader. The company went public in December 1980. In 1981, with IBM entering the personal computer market, Apple’s competitive position changed completely. Although App1e’s revenues continued to grow, market share and margins fell dramatically. Apple reacted to IBM threat through innovation, by launching the Lisa and Macintosh (Mac). These innovative computers featured a graphical interface and a windowing operation system that allowed the user to view and switch between several applications at once.

  • 英語を日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    IBM trademark was its horizontal and vertical integration. It had the largest direct sales forces in the computer industry and sold more types of computers, software. And peripherals than any other company in the world. IBM’s R&D budget of $6.6 billion exceeded the revenues of all but a few competitors. Its market share had steadily declined in the PC business 1984. lts products lost much of differentiation as clones successfully attacked IBM with cheaper and sometimes with technically superior products; and after a dispute with Microsoft, IBM appeared to lose control over the operating system software. In order to regain the initiative, IBM launched alliances in the 1990s, with Siemens for joint development of the next generation of memory chips; with Toshiba for flat panel displays; with Apple for the next generation operating system; and with Motorola for microprocessors. Compaq started by selling the first successful IBM clone portable, and made $100 million in sales, which made it the fastest-growing company in history Compaq growth and profitability were based on offering more power or features than comparable IBM’s, at slightly higher prices. By launching the first PC with an Intel 80386 microprocessor, it became a trend­setter rather than just another clone.

  • 英語を日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    In 1992, many buyers could not easily make the difference between IBM and no-name PC brands, which allowed prices to drop, thanks to competition. For example, on the same day of February of 1992, Apple and Dell Computer both cut prices by nearly 40 percent. Within a week other competitors did the same. However, Apple still had as main competitors, IBM, the worldwide leader; Compaq, the premium-priced leader in the MS­Dos/Intel segment and Dell, a clone. In the 1990s, IBM had a large installed base of customers that was tied to the company's highly profitable, proprietary technology But like most mini and mainframe companies, IBM was also a relatively high-cost producer of PCs that was struggling to create a unique position for itself. IBM did suffer it first loss in history in 1991, but still was the world leader in computers, with $64 billion in revenues and the number one market share in PCS, minicomputers and mainframes. (See Exhibit 4).

  • 英語を日本語翻訳してください(翻訳ソフトNG)

    Michael Dell started Dell Computer in Austin, Texas in 1984. The company first product was an IBM PC/XT clone that he sold through computer magazines at one-half lBM’s primes. From 1985 to 1990, Dell became the fastest-growing computer company in the world. By 1991, it was a half-billion-dollar company, offering a full line of PCs through direct mail. Dell distinctive strategy was: its unconditional money-back guarantee within 30 days, its toll-free customer service number, and a one-year contract with Xerox to provide next-day, on-site service within 100 miles of nearly 200 locations.

  • 英語を日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    The education market accounted for 9 percent of units and 7 percent of revenues. Most school had limited budgets for computers, what most educators were interested the most in was the availability of suitable software. As for the individual/home market, it accounted for 31 percent of units and 23 percent revenues. In 1991, the four largest PC manufacturers are said to have been IBM, Apple, NEC, and Compaq. They accounted nearly 37 percent of the world market. (See Exhibit 3.) More than 200 companies were from a dozen countries.” U.S, firms had over 60 percent of global revenues, Taiwanese small companies, like Acer, were gaining share in the very low end, and Japanese firms were the biggest manufacturers in portable computers. Tbshiba, a huge Japanese conglomerate, dominated laptops with (26 percent share in 1990), followed by NEC (15 percent).

  • 日本語に翻訳してください。(翻訳ソフトNG)

    In retrospect. Fujitsu can arguably be charàcterized as one of the most successful companies in post­war Japan. Today, Fujitsu is by far Jàpan’s largest computer maker and, unlike its domestic rivals such as NEC or Hitachi, computers are its dominant field of activity, accounting percent of total sales in the fiscal year 1990.“ Moreover, Fujitsu appears to be one of the very few computer manufàcturers, if not the only one, capable of challenging the long undisputed position of the industry’s giant, IBM, which is now encountering increased competition from Fujitsu not only in Japan but also in all major international markets. Fujitsu’s ability to compete stems from its efforts in research and development which have enabled it to supply computers that are highly competitive in terms of both performance and price. In addition Fujitsu’s strong performance, not only in computers but also in the field of telecommunications and semiconductors, makes it possible for the company to offer an integrated approach to the transmitting, processing and storing of data, something which IBM, for example, has yet to achieve. When Fujitsu was established in 1935, however, it did not look as if it was set to become a forerunner in high technology. As will become apparent, Fujitsu’s metamorphosis from a manufacturer of switching and carrier transmission systems for the Ministry of Communications into a high-technology enterprise was a long and winding road. To understand the nature of this transformation, and to return to the question of whether spinning off divisions as independent companies provides conditions favourable to innovation and growth which would not exist in a huge multi-divisional concern, it is necessary to examine the internal conditions prevailing in Fujitsu from the time of its foundation and to reflect on its history and the activities of its leading engineers and managers. Founded at a time of mounting international tension, Fujitsu’s development up to the end of the Second World War was strongly shaped by the stringent conditions of Japan’s wartime economy. As pointed out earlier, the company’s major customer was the Ministry of Communications. Thus Fujìtsu’s business activities largely depended on and fluctuated according to the Ministry’s demand for communication equipment. Given this dependence, and the fact that, following Japan’s invasion of Manchuria, resources were increasingly drawn away from the Teishinsho and other ministries to the military, Fujitsu encountered the problem of its principal customer being unable to pursue its policy of expanding Japan's domestic telephone network. As a result, Fujitsu suffered a direct drop in demand, which was only partially compensated for by increased military demand for communications equipment stemming from .lapan’s territorial expansion in China. Moreover, along with other private industrial companies, the management of Fujitsu became increasingly subject io government control. Its factories were designated as ‘Armycontrolled’(gunju kaisha),and the purchase of raw materials and sale of finished products were subject to the imperatives of economy. a controlled economy. The period from the company’s foundation to the end of the Second World War was thus characterized by scarce resources, labour shortages, increasing government interference, and, the destruction of production facilities by Allied air raids. It may seem as if the war had a wholly negative influence on the company’s development, but this was not entirely the case. During this period, the company learned how to overcome its dependence on foreign (Le. Siemens’) technology. Furthermore, a handful of young engineers, who would later become the driving force behind the development of the company’s computer business, gained useful experience which made them realize the crucial ìmportance of computer technology and its significance for Fujitsu’s future.

  • 英語を日本語翻訳してください(翻訳ソフトNG)

    However, Compaq position weakened sharply as clones were quickly copying its PCs and were sometimes beaten on the market by some new products. The greatest damage was done by Dell Computer. which ran full‐page ads in newspapers around the world by suggesting that Dell offered comparable value at 50 percent off' Compaq‘s list price. Although the allegation was not true, Compaq was put on the defensive with its customers, which caused it to cut prices and streamline costs. Its CEO was later fired and the company adopted a new strategy by reducing cost and offering low-priced products through lower-cost channels.

  • 日本語に翻訳お願いします(翻訳ソフトNG)

    Around 1897 Fujita and Co. faced a management crisis. Over the period 1894-95 its President, Denzaburö Fujita, suffered losses of approximately one million yen as a result of speculation in shares7. ln 1896, moreover, their main business, the Kosaka Mines, had virtually ceased to be profitable. Also, in connection with the Kojima Bay Reclamation Project9, for which planning had started in 1882, they had expended approximately one million yen in trying to placate local opinion and on lobbying politicians and government officials. Despite this, however, there was a campaign of opposition, and no progress had been made. All these» “factors combined to push Fujitagumi & Co. to the very brink of bankruptcy. The core business of the Kosaka Mine had originally been the smelting and refining of silver; When Kuhara became Office Manager in 1897, he over to copper smelting and refining, and by 1900 had developed new technology for this purpose, In the five-year period from 1906 to 1910 me Kosaka Mine posted profits of ¥15.9 million. Permission tó start Work on the Kojima Bay Reclamation Project was received in 1898, thanks to the efforts of Hikoichi Motoyama, the General Manager of Fujitagumi & Co., and in 1902 the reclamation of the main sections was completed. By 1902, thanks to the resurgence of the Kosaka Mine and the progress of the Kojìma Bay Reclamation Project, the fortunes of Fujitagumi & Co. had been reestablished, and from about this time Denzaburö Fujita started thinking about his successor. Shikatarö, one of the joint managers of Fujitagumi & Co., had died in 1896, and his son, Kotarö Fujita, had joined the management team. Shözaburö, one of the other joint managers, had retired in 1905, to be replaced by his son, Fusanosuke Kuhara. Denzaburö had three sons, Heitarö, Tokujirö, and Híkosaburö. The profits earned thanks to the resurgence of the Kosaka Mine were considerable, and Fusanosuke’s standing Within the company was high. Denzaburö was well aware that if he were to choose his successor on the basis of managerial ability the choice would be Fusanosuke. However, Denzaburö tried to designate his eldest son, Heitarö, as his successor. In the background to this issue lay the fact that despite the fact that Denjirö had been the youngest among his siblings, he had continued to run Fujitagumi & Co. as President, thanks to the policy of putting ability above other considerations. A struggle started over the succession between Denjirö, the current President, and Fusanosuke, who wished to succeed him in that post. Denzaburö came to a decision that if he could not get agreement on Heitarö as his successor, that the three should all become independent and separate. Bluntly put, he had made the decision to force Kotarö and Fusanosuke out of Fujitagumi & Co.. The year 1905 was spent fighting this power struggle. In summer of that year it was finally decided that Kotarö and Fusanosuke would leave Fujitagumi & Co., and go independent,

  • 英語を日本語翻訳してください(翻訳ソフトNG)

    Dell generally copied Compaq or lBM"s basic design assembling the products with standard components. However in 1992 Dell started to feel pressure from lower-priced clones such as ALR, Packard Bell, and Gateway. They copied Dell and offered even lower expense structure and lower prices. Dell was force to look for new strategy to differentiate its products through innovation. By 1992, Dell was introducing new PCs every three weeks; its oldest product was 11 months old.