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英文の翻訳おねがいします。

翻訳お願いします。今読んでいる英文の法律誌でどうしても訳せない部分があるので、英語の得意な方で訳していただけないでしょうか。ニュアンスが分かればいいのでよろしくお願いします。 1The difference between the role of Congress in shaping the copyright system and the role of courts in applying the fair use defense is that Congress is constrained in its task second,whether as a rule transaction costs would stand in the way of a negotiated license. 2Only if both questions are answered affir-matively will the fair use defense apply. 3The most salient point about transaction costs as an occasion for applying the fair usedoctrine is that transaction costs are mutable, and the too liberal dispensation of fair use can slow the investment in institutions and technologies that might reduce transaction costs to manageable levels and consequently dispense with any need for the doctrine.

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話題になっている fair use doctrine ですが、Space Alc の説明によると > 《法律》公正使用{こうせい しよう}の理論{りろん}◆無許可で著作権のある著作物を使用しても、批判、報道、教育、研究などのためであるとき、著作権侵害とならないとする法理論 となります。同様の内容は、英語版の wikipedia に項目があります。 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_use  文中で何度も登場するtransaction cost(s) の項目もありました。 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_cost 他、negotiated license やliberal dispensation などwiki に項目はないものの、成句で用いられるようです。 ただし、1において文の構造が見えない。2において文脈が見えない。3において具体事例の提示がない。 の制限があったため、当方のわかる範囲内での訳の提示とさせていただきます。 1 [訳] 著作権(法)体系を構築する議会の役割とthe fair use defenseを適応する裁判所の役割の違いは、議会は(現実の)課題に制約せれている、ということ、、、2番目に、、、transaction costsが概して、交渉の末得られたライセンスに立ちはだかるどうか。 [語句] difference between A and B A とB との相違 the role of A in B(--ing) Bする際のAの役割 as a rule 概して stand in the way of.. ...に立ちはだかる(..の邪魔になる) 2 [訳] 両方の質問がともに肯定的に回答された場合のみ、the fair use defense が適応される。 [語句] Only if both questions are answered affirmatively という語句を文頭に置き、倒置の構文となっている。 3 [訳] transaction costs をfair use doctrine 適応の場とする(考えの)際立った箇所は以下の通り transaction costsなるものが変動するものである。 fair use の拡大解釈(濫用)は、transaction costs を対処可能なレベルまでに下げ、結果としてそうした理論の必要性をなくしてしまうような、組織や技術への投資を緩慢なものにする可能性がある。 [語句] mutable = changeable liberal 自由な dispensation 法からの免除 dispense with.. ..なしで済ます

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  • 英文の和訳お願いします。

    今読んでいる英文の雑誌が難しすぎてわからない部分があるのでよろしくお願いします。 課題とかでは無いので、ニュアンスが理解できればいいです。 (1)The difference between the role of Congress in shaping the copyright system and the role of courts in applying the fair use defense is that Congress is constrained in its task only by the loose harness of the Constiution’s copyright clause and by its own sense of political expedience, while courts are constrained by the purposes and factors that Congress expressly laid down in section 107 and by the precedents that have given shape to section 107 and that will continue to define its reach over time. (2)Two examples will illustrate how, in resolving the problem of transaction costs, fair use doctrine aligns the “public good” with “the claims of individuals.” (3)In the first example, a motion picture producer wishes to produce a movie based on a copy-righted novel. 自分で調べた単語 ・Congress  議会 ・ copyright system  著作権法体系 ・fair use defense  フェアユースの抗弁 ・section 107       107条 ・ transaction costs   取引費用

  • 英文の和訳お願いします。

    今読んでいる英文の雑誌が難しすぎてわからない部分があるのでよろしくお願いします。 課題とかでは無いので、ニュアンスが理解できればいいです。 (1)The difference between the role of Congress in shaping the copyright system and the role of courts in applying the fair use defense is that Congress is constrained in its task only by the loose harness of the Constiution’s copyright clause and by its own sense of political expedience, while courts are constrained by the purposes and factors that Congress expressly laid down in section 107 and by the precedents that have given shape to section 107 and that will continue to define its reach over time. (2)Two examples will illustrate how, in resolving the problem of transaction costs, fair use doctrine aligns the “public good” with “the claims of individuals.” (3)In the first example, a motion picture producer wishes to produce a movie based on a copy-righted novel. 自分で調べた単語 ・Congress  議会 ・ copyright system  著作権法体系 ・fair use defense  フェアユースの抗弁 ・section 107       107条 ・ transaction costs   取引費用

  • 英文翻訳おねがいします!

    The ancient city of Peshawar is located in Pakistan, close to the site of the earliest Buddhist sculptures. Sheep are abundant in that area. Medieval wooden homes line the dark streets, and here and there smoke rises from small restaurants nestled among the homes. All the restaurants serve sheep meat, or mutton. The meat is served grilled on skewers or as small steaks. The most delicious fragrance of all comes from kabobs. Kabob, also called kebab, means "grilled meat" in Arabic. The most common meat comes from sheep. The cheapest and best kabobs are found in small restaurants where the meat is grilled over charcoal. Chunks of meat are placed on skewers and grilled over a charcoal fire. That's it. If the cook is skillful, the meat is moist, and melts in your mouth. Large restaurants will season the meat and cook it with onions, however, the authentic kabob is not even seasoned with salt. The quality of the meat determines the flavor, so small authentic restaurants are the best place for kabob. The word shish kabob comes from the Turkish language, and is understood just about everywhere. Sheep meat is considered a great delicacy just about everywhere in the Middle East and Central Asia. The entire animal is eaten, including its innards. In towns, stalls selling sheep innards stand alongside stalls selling mutton. There are corners where dozens of sheep's heads will be displayed for sale. The brains are considered the tastiest part of the animal, and are eaten boiled with a squirt of fresh lemon. In various regions throughout the Middle East and Central Asia, there is an annual rite in which sheep are sacrificed, and the meat is distributed to relatives and neighbors. It is said that in Pakistan, the finest hospitality is shown to company by killing a sheep in the morning, and serving its brains in the evening.

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こんにちはぼくはセントメリーズインターナショナルスクールに通ってる12歳の喘息持ちの男の子 意味を教えます 1この特許を守らなきゃ裁判所で戦い罰金を支払う可能性がある書いてあります 訳す 2二つの質問が肯定的答えれば公正使用の防衛は適用する。 3公平なusedoctrine(わからないです)をかもしれた施設および技術の投資を遅らせるには適用するための機会として取引費用についての最も顕著なポイントは取引費用が変わるである、公正使用の余りにも寛大な分与はできることであり

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  • 英文の翻訳おねがいします。

    沖縄の戦争についての新聞記事です。 英語が得意な方、翻訳よろしくおねがいします。 A kamikaze pilot confessed his desire to live before he left on a suicide mission in World War II, according to a diary recently donated to a museum in Tokyo, which offers a touching glimpse into the thoughts of a young man before his final flight. Akira Otsuka, from Tokyo's Asakusa district, went unaccounted for after his aircraft left for Okinawa on April 29, 1945. He was 22. Otsuka, who was scheduled to enter Tohoku University, volunteered to join the Imperial Japanese Navy. The diary, written in a notebook that has become yellowish over the years, is on display at Wadatsumi no Koe Kinenkan in Tokyo's Bunkyo Ward, which features material on students who died in World War II. In the diary, Otsuka often emphasized that he was prepared to die for the nation. "I must devote myself to everyday training to sink enemy aircraft carriers," he wrote. In an entry on April 1, however, Otsuka confessed that he sometimes gave in to despair, although he had aspired to become a kamikaze pilot. In an entry the following day, he wrote: "Japan, a divine nation, must definitely win out. I believe I can make up for being an unfilial son by dying for the imperial cause. But is it selfish if I wish to live and fulfill my duties to my parents?" Makoto Kumagai, 88, Otsuka's classmate in high school in Yamagata, was given the diary about 10 years ago when he visited the home of Otsuka's family to offer incense. Kumagai, a resident of Hiratsuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, donated the diary to the museum in June so that younger generations can learn about the horrors of war. "In those days, we could not say we wanted to live," Kumagai said. "Otsuka probably wrote what was in his heart in the diary, even though he bottled up his feelings." In an entry on April 4, Otsuka described the scene during a visit home where he told his family that he was selected to be a kamikaze pilot. "Father must have felt sad to know that I will be dying," he wrote. "His face clouded over for a moment, but he encouraged me to carry out my mission, thinking about the country's situation and my responsibility." He also wrote: "I left my parents after engraving the faces of my father, mother, brother and sister deep in my heart." The diary ended with an entry on April 19, when Otsuka left Tokyo's Ueno Station and returned to his unit in Ibaraki Prefecture. "I will take off toward the skies of Okinawa to repay my obligations to my parents," he wrote, 10 days before he left on his suicide mission. Kumagai has spent a year compiling the personal notes and records of students who went to war into a book. The book, "Gakuseitachi no Taiheiyo Senso" (The Pacific War of students), will be released in mid-September by publisher Yumekoubou. "What kind of country was (Japan) that (the students) tried to defend?" Kumagai said. "I want young people to think about that." Even 66 years after the war, Wadatsumi no Koe Kinenkan still receives material left by students, such as Otsuka's diary. The museum, currently closed, will reopen Aug. 31. It is open from 1:30 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, except for national holidays. Admission is free.

  • 英文翻訳おねがいします!

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  • 英文の翻訳

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  • 英文について

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  • 英文の翻訳をおねがいします。

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  • 英文の翻訳(和訳)をおねがいします。 考えてみたのですがうまく訳せません。

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  • おねがいします

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  • 英文の翻訳

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  • 英文を翻訳お願いします

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