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We study the evolution of meridional flows in the solar convection zone extending to a depth of 0.793R☉ in the period 2000-2003 with helioseismic data taken with the Taiwan Oscillation Network(TON) using the technique of time-distance helioseismology.The meridional flows of each hemisphere formed a single-cell pattern in the convection zone at the solar minimum.An additional divergent flow was created at active latitudes in both hemispheres as the activity developed.The amplitude of this divergent flow correlates with the sunspot number:it increased from solar minimum to maximum(from 1996 to 2000), and then decreased from 2000 to 2003 with the sunspot number.The amplitude of the divergent flow increases with depth from 0.987R☉ to a depth of about 0.9R☉, and then decreases with depth at least down to 0.793R☉.


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    Although the magnitude of the variations of carbon-14 is strongly attenuated through the carbon cycle after being produced by the GCRs in the atmosphere (Siegenthaler and Beer, 1988), carbon-14 in tree-rings preserve the information on the variations in solar cycles and the magnetic dipole polarity of the sun. Therefore, the variability of the “11-year” solar cycle in association with the century-scale variations of solar activity can be monitored to asses its influence on climate. The lengths of sunspot periods have been modulated by a few years since the 11-year sunspot cycle was firstly found by Schwabe (1843). The maximum range observed so far is ~ 9 to ~ 14 years, but most of the cycles fit in ~ 10–12 years with the overall average being 11 years. However, we have previously found a change in average cycle length during the Maunder Minimum ((Miyahara et al., 2004); see Supplementary Fig. S1). The sunspots were scarce through 1645–1715 AD due to the anomalous weakening of the magnetic activity at this time, yet the carbon-14 abundances show the appearance of significant cyclic changes in magnetic activity. The average length of the cycles through the 70 years was about 14 years with the 28-year period of magnetic polarity reversals. The relationship between the cycle length of the “11-year” variation in sunspots and its magnitude has been investigated in several papers (Clough, 1905, Solanki et al., 2002 and Rogers et al., 2006). A consistent feature is the inverse correlation between cycle amplitudes and cycle lengths that maybe related to the change of the meridional flows inside the convection zone of the sun (Hathaway et al., 2003).

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    Abstract The linkage between multi-decadal climate variability and activity of the sun has been long debated based upon observational evidence from a large number of instrumental and proxy records. It is difficult to evaluate the exact role of each of solar parameters on climate change since instrumentally measured solar related parameters such as Total Solar irradiance (TSI), Ultra Violet (UV), solar wind and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) fluxes are more or less synchronized and only extend back for several decades. Here we report tree-ring carbon-14 based record of 11-year/22-year solar cycles during the Maunder Minimum (17th century) and the early Medieval Maximum Period (9–10th century) to reconstruct the state of the sun and the flux of incoming GCRs. The result strongly indicates that the influence of solar cycles on climate is persistent beyond the period after instrumental observations were initiated. We find that the actual lengths of solar cycles vary depending on the status of long-term solar activity, and that periodicity of the surface air temperatures are also changing synchronously. Temperature variations over the 22-year cycles seem, in general, to be more significant than those associated with the 11-year cycles and in particular around the grand solar minima such as the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715 AD). The polarity dependence of cooling events found in this study suggests that the GCRs can not be excluded from the possible drivers of decadal to multi-decadal climate change.

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    Marathon negotiations on protecting the planets endangered species open on Saturday in Qatar with tensions bubbling over efforts to ban trade in bluefin tuna and to reopen exports of elephant ivory from Afric

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    3. Results and discussions Our new annual carbon-14 data for the EMMP not only confirm the relationship between the cycle length and solar activity level but also provide some important insights on the state of solar activity during this period. Fig. 1 shows the signal of solar cycles detected in the carbon-14 data and Fig. 2-a shows the frequency analysis of the data, exhibiting the change in solar cycles and their amplitude. The power spectrum remarkably indicates a 9-year cyclicity (± 1 for the 68% confidence level against the high-frequency noise (< 3 years) through 880–960 AD, together with an 18-year period of solar polarity reversals. The overall significances of the two signals are 3 sigma and 2.7 sigma, respectively. The length of the 11-year solar cycle is ~ 2 years shorter than that observed for the last 150 years, and ~ 5 years shorter than those during the Maunder Minimum.

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    The Admiralty wished to prevent the station from being used to co-ordinate attacks on shipping in the Atlantic. At the outbreak of war the Governor of Togoland, Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg was in Germany and his deputy, Major Hans-Major Georg von Döring was the acting-Governor. Sir Hugh Clifford, the Governor of the Gold Coast, Lieutenant-General Charles Macpherson Dobell, commander of the West African Frontier Force (WAFF) and Lieutenant-Colonel R. A. de B. Rose, commander of the Gold Coast Regiment were absent during July 1914. W. C. F. Robertson was the acting-Governor and Captain Frederick Bryant was acting-Commandant of the Gold Coast Regiment. The Gold Coast Regiment had one pioneer company, seven infantry companies with a machine-gun each, and a battery of four QF 2.95-inch Mountain Guns, amounting to 1,595 men including 124 carriers and about 330 reservists. There were four "Volunteer Corps" with about 900 men and 1,200 police and customs officers. The Defence Scheme for the Gold Coast (1913) provided for war against the French in neighbouring Ivory Coast and the Germans in Togoland; in the event of war with Germany, the colony was to be defended along Lake Volta and the north-eastern frontier against the possibility of a raid, which was the most that the Germans in Togoland were thought capable of. The plan also provided for an offensive across the lake into the north of Togoland, before making a thrust south to the more populated portion of the colony. On 29 July, a Colonial Office telegram arrived at Accra, ordering the adoption of the precautionary stage of the Defence Scheme and Robertson forwarded the information to Bryant the next day. Bryant dispensed with the Scheme, which had not been revised after the wireless station at Kamina was built and by 31 July, had mobilised the Gold Coast Regiment along the southern, rather than the northern border with Togoland. In London on 3 August, Dobell proposed an advance if war was declared, along the coast road from Ada to Keta and thence to Lomé, which was fewer than 2 mi (3.2 km) from the border. Bryant had reached the same conclusion as Dobell and had already organised small expeditionary columns at Krachi and Ada and assembled the main force at Kumasi, ready to move in either direction. On 5 August 1914, a day after Britain declared war on Germany, the Allies cut the German sea cables between Monrovia and Tenerife, leaving the radio station at Kamina the only connexion between the colony and Germany. The same day the acting-Governor of Togoland, Döring sent a telegram to Robertson proposing neutrality, in accordance with articles X and XI of the Congo Act, which stated that colonies in the Congo Basin were to remain neutral in the event of a conflict in Europe.

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    Here we examine the relationship between the sun and climate by measuring the carbon-14 content in tree-rings with annual time resolution. The GCR flux and hence the activity level of the sun can be monitored by carbon-14. Our particular focus is around the period of the Maunder Minimum and the early Medieval Maximum Period (EMMP) in the 9–10th century. Sunspot numbers and the activity levels of the sun gradually change in time with quasi-cycles of about 11 years (Schwabe cycle).The polarity of the solar intrinsic magnetic field, which is more or less a simple dipole at every activity minima, reverses at every activity maximum. It changes the track of protons, the positively charged main constituent of GCRs, due to the spirally expanding interplanetary magnetic field formed by solar wind (Kota and Jokipii, 1983) and hence changes the attenuation level of GCRs in the heliosphere. Bulk of the GCRs comes from the polar region of the heliosphere when the polarity of the sun is positive, while GCRs come from the horizontal direction when negative.The attenuation of GCRs in the heliosphere is, therefore, more sensitive when the polarity is negative to the intensity of solar magnetic field and the tilt angle of the current sheets which expand horizontal direction. Thus the variation of the GCR flux on the earth has a “22-year” cyclic component, and will be transferred to the variations in carbon-14.

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    We have used oxygen-18 in ice core data as a climate proxy instead of the dendro-climatology data since the oxygen data better preserves the detail in annual variations. The rapid cooling as indicated as the sharp drop in delta oxygen-18 by ~ 2‰ can be seen just around the “11-year” solar minima at solar polarity negative during the Maunder Minimum, indicating an apparent “22-year” cycle in temperature variations. On the other hand, large decline in delta oxygen-18 occurs when the polarity is positive before and after the Maunder Minimum. The transitions into/out from the “Normal Mode (colder event at polarity positive)” to/from the “Maunder Minimum mode (colder event at polarity negative)” are resulting in the appearance of significant “11-year” cycle in temperature variations. The correlation coefficient of carbon-14 (considering 2-year lag in the carbon cycle) and dendro-data with the “22-year” solar cycle band during EMMP (bandwidth: 16–20 years) is - 0.71, which implies drops in temperature correspond to the period when higher GCRs flux is observed. The features of solar forcing on climate found in this study can be schematically described as shown in Fig. 6 where Δt represents the changing length of the “11-year” cycle, which tends to be longer at the Maunder Minimum mode. The wavelet spectra of temperatures support this proposition showing a significant signal of 11-year period only around the transition time getting into/out of the Maunder Minimum ( Fig. 3).

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    The depth of infantry breastworks was increased to 6 m (20 ft) and new positions were reinforced by tree trunks, 50 mm (2.0 in) steel sheets and overhead cover of 1–5 m (3.3–16.4 ft) of earth. Fields of fire were improved by cutting down trees and demolishing houses, much of the village of Élesmes to the north-east of Maubeuge, being levelled. In three weeks, 1.5 million pickets were driven into the ground for thousands of kilometres of barbed wire, covering 100 ha (250 acres) around the fortifications and intervals. Behind the forts, workers levelled the ground for a narrow-gauge railway to connect the forts and the Maubeuge citadel; in twenty-seven days, 20 km (12 mi) of track was laid. The fortress guns had ranges of only 5–9 km (3.1–5.6 mi) and were brought forward to the perimeter to counter German artillery with a range of up to 14 km (8.7 mi). The artillery had a reserve of 250,000 rounds and dumps of 300 rounds per gun were established. Work began on a reserve position in the eastern sector near Élesmes and Assevent, 2–3 km (1.2–1.9 mi) behind the outer works. The support line from bois Mairieux to bois des Saris, Douzies, the outskirts of Louvroil and bois des Bons Pères, was too close to the forts and ouvrages, vulnerable to being overrun if the main defences fell. There were no fortifications between the support line and the old Vauban ramparts. An advanced position was created in the south-west from bois Hautmont to Quesnoy, close to Hautmont, in the main defensive line. The Maubeuge garrison had been so busy on the defences that by August 1914, the men were exhausted and there had been no time for the Territorials to receive refresher training, despite them having only just received St. Étienne Mle 1907 machine-guns. Fournier planned to fight in the open as well as under cover, since the fortifications would be bombarded. Troops would have to fight in the open to shift machine-guns to threatened points but the reservists had to rely on requisitioned civilian vehicles. The mobile reserve (General VinckelMeyer) comprised the balance of the active and reserve troops of the 145th, 345th, and 31st Colonial regiments, the two squadrons of the 6th Chasseur Regiment and the four mounted 75 mm batteries. From mid-August, the Maubeuge defences were divided into five sectors; the 1st sector (General Peyrecave) west of the Mons railway to the Sambre with four territorial battalions and a battalion of the 32nd Colonial Regiment in reserve at Douzies. The 2nd sector (Colonel Guérardel) in the south-west from the Sambre to Solre was held by five and a half Territorial battalions, with one battalion of the 3rd Colonial Regiment at Ferriéres la Grande in reserve. The 3rd sector (Colonel de La Motte) from the Solre to the Ouvrage du Feignies was defended by five and a half Territorial battalions and a Customs battalion. The 4th sector (General Ville) from ouvrage du Feignies to Héronfontaine was garrisoned by Five Territorial battalions and a battalion of customs officers.

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    The Japanese confectioner Kazuki, for example makes a chocolate-dipped cookies sold in Europe , through a joint venture with Kraf Foods of the U.S , as the Mikado,and elsewhere as Pocky. Mikio Kasama ,head of the golbal business division at Kazuki,said Mikado sales brought in \15 billion ,or $160 million , a year and that Mikado sales in Europe were growing at an anuual rate of about 10 percent.