『英語』に関する質問・疑問一覧

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Togoland Campaign (9–26 August 1914) was a French and British invasion of the German colony of Togoland in west Africa, which began the West African Campaign of the First World War. German colonial forces withdrew from the capital Lomé and the coastal province, to fight delaying actions on the route north to Kamina, where the Kamina Funkstation (wireless transmitter) linked the government in Berlin to Togoland, the Atlantic and South America. The main British and French force from the neighbouring colonies of Gold Coast and Dahomey, advanced from the coast up the road and railway, as smaller forces converged on Kamina from the north. The German defenders were able to delay the invaders for several days at the battles of Agbeluvhoe and Chra but surrendered the colony on 26 August 1914. In 1916, Togoland was partitioned by the victors and in July 1922, British Togoland and French Togoland were established as League of Nations mandates. The German Empire had established a protectorate over Togoland in 1884, which was slightly larger than Ireland and had a population of about one million people in 1914. A mountain range with heights of over 3,000 ft (910 m) ran south-east to north-west and restricted traffic between the coast and hinterland. South of the high ground the ground rises from coastal marshes and lagoons to a plateau about 200–300 ft (61–91 m) high, covered in forest, high grass and scrub, where farmers had cleared the forest for palm oil cultivation. The climate was tropical, with more rainfall in the interior and a dry season in August. Half of the border with Gold Coast ran along the Volta river and a tributary but in the south, the border for 80 mi (130 km) was beyond the east bank. The Germans had made the southern region one of the most developed colonies in Africa, having built three metre-gauge railway lines and several roads from Lomé the capital and main city. There was no port and ships had to lie off Lomé and transfer freight via surfboat. One line ran along the coast from Anekho to Lomé, one ran from Lomé to Atakpame and one from Lomé to Palime. Roads had been built from Lomé to Atakpame and Sokode, Palime to Kete Krachi and from Kete Krachi to Sansame Mangu; in 1914 the roads were reported to be fit for motor vehicles. German military forces in Togoland were exiguous, there were no German army units in Togoland, only 693 Polizeitruppen (paramilitary police) under the command of Captain Georg Pfähler and about 300 colonists with military training. The colony was adjacent to Allied territory, with French Dahomey on its northern and eastern borders and the British Gold Coast to the west. Lomé and the wireless station at Kamina about 62 mi (100 km) inland, which was connected to the coast by road and rail, were the only places of military significance. Kamina was near the town of Atakpame and had been completed in June 1914. The transmitter was a relay station for communication between Germany, the overseas colonies, the Imperial German Navy and South America.

    2019/07/27 23:32
  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    German pleasure with the victory in part arose from a mistaken belief that they had defeated the entirety of the BEF, not knowing that they had in fact only faced one corps and one of the cavalry brigades. It was this mistake which allowed II Corps to retire as German troops were given a night of rest instead of being sent to pursue the British forces. A second battle of Le Cateau took place in much the same area from 5 to 11 October 1918. The Allies captured the St. Quentin-Cambrai railway, 12,000 prisoners and 250 guns, but suffered 536 casualties. The Rearguard Affair of Le Grand Fayt was a rearguard action fought at Grand-Fayt by the British Expeditionary Force during the Great Retreat on the Western Front in 1914. The German 2nd Army commander General Karl von Bülow had ordered a rapid pursuit after the battles of 21–24 August against the French Fifth Army and the Expeditionary Force (EF). The 1st and 2nd armies were sent to the south-west to gain the left flank of the Allied line. The X Reserve Corps encountered "especially obstinate" resistance at Marbaix and Le Grand-Fayt. On the morning of the 26 August 1914, the 2nd Connaught Rangers under Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Abercrombie covering the retreat of the British 5th Infantry Brigade from Petit Landrecies. Unknown to Abercrombie, by late morning the retreat had already taken place but the orders had not reached the Connaught Rangers. Hearing the sound of rifle fire coming from near-by Marbaix, Abercrombie set off with two platoons of infantry in the direction Marbaix only to come under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire. Abercrombie then ordered his force to retire on Le Grand Fayt, which locals had told him was clear of Germans, only to discover that Le Grand Fayt had been abandoned. Abercrombie and his men then came under heavy fire from Germans concealed in the village, and the order was given to retreat through the surrounding fields. Despite the German small-arms fire and the difficulty of communication in the close terrain, the retreat was carried out in an orderly fashion, although 6 officers and 280 men were still missing on 29 August, including Abercrombie. By the evening the X Reserve Corps was still near Marbaix and Avesnes. The pursuit by the 2nd Army was ordered to continue on 27 August through Landrecies and Trélon, with the X Reserve Corps advancing towards Wassigny.

    2019/07/27 23:28
  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    The order was confirmed by a colonel from the II Corps staff, who, upon arriving, repeated it. Smith-Dorrien's delaying operation never occurred because the order to defend arrived at the front line about the same time the Germans did, sometimes later. Nor were the conditions of a doctrinal delay observed, such as refusing to let British units become decisively engaged with the enemy. He did not choose positions with adequate fields-of-fire and with prepared and hidden routes of withdrawal. According to the German official history, the IV Corps commander, Sixt von Armin, issued an order at 11:15 that turned the regimental- and brigade-level fights into a centrally coordinated battle, but there is no evidence of German command and control above the divisional level. Seventy-five percent of IV Corps troops were in contact before they received this order and the rest never made it to the battlefield. The IV Corps commander did not control the other half of the German forces, II Cavalry Corps, which fought independently. Holding their ground despite many casualties, the British right and then the left flank began to break around midday, under unrelenting pressure from the Germans. The arrival of the Corps de cavalerie Sordet (French Cavalry Corps, General André Sordet) acted as a shield for the British left flank and supported a highly co-ordinated tactical withdrawal, despite German attempts to infiltrate and outflank the retreating British forces. That night, the Allies withdrew to Saint-Quentin. Of the 40,000 British troops fighting at Le Cateau, 7,812 British casualties were incurred, including 2,600 taken prisoner.[8] Thirty-eight guns were abandoned, most having their breech blocks removed and sights disabled by the gunners first. II Corps retreated on the morning of 27 August and in two days of marching, broke contact with the Germans. Having lost 7,000 of its infantry at Le Cateau and 2,500–3,000 footsore and exhausted men who had to be evacuated to Le Mans for recuperation, II Corps was not battleworthy for at least two days. Although credited at the time by Field Marshal Sir John French for having saved the BEF, Smith-Dorrien was later criticized for his decision to stand at Le Cateau by French. German losses were 2,900 men. The Germans were pleased with their victory. The historian of Infantry Regiment 93 wrote The battle of Beaumont-Inchy will always be one of the most glorious days in the history of the regiment, which demonstrated that in a frontal attack against an enemy that was heretofore considered unbeatable, the crack troops of the British Army, the 93rd was not merely their equal, it was superior." 75th Field Artillery Regiment said that the battle "strengthened the self-confidence of the German troops … all the more so because the British army was made up almost exclusively of long-service active army troops, who were superbly trained and equipped. — Historian, IR 93

    2019/07/27 23:25
  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The fortress city of Lemberg itself fell to the Russians on 3 September. The Austrian Second Army of Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli was quickly transferred from the Serbian front, and its VIIth Corps arrived in time to prevent a complete Austrian collapse in Galicia. The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August 1914, after the British and French retreated from the Battle of Mons and had set up defensive positions in a fighting withdrawal against the German advance at Le Cateau-Cambrésis. Although the Germans were victorious, the rearguard action was successful in that it allowed the majority of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) to escape to Saint-Quentin. On the morning of 26 August, the Germans arrived and attacked II Corps (General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien). Unlike the Battle of Mons, where the majority of casualties inflicted by the British were from rifle fire, Le Cateau was an artilleryman's battle, demonstrating the devastating results which modern quick-firing artillery using shrapnel shells could have on infantry advancing in the open. The British deployed their artillery in the open, about 50–200 metres (55–219 yd) behind their infantry, while the German artillery used indirect fire from concealed positions. With the guns so close to their infantry, the British had unintentionally increased the effectiveness of the German artillery-fire, because shells aimed at the British infantry could just as easily hit the British artillery Modern map of the Le Cateau area (commune FR insee code 59136) The British 5th Division was positioned on the right flank, on the southern side of the Le Cateau–Cambrai road between Inchy and Le Cateau. The 3rd Division was in the centre, holding the ground between Caudry and Inchy. The 4th Division was on the left flank, on the northern bank of the Warnelle. This was a poor choice of terrain on the part of the British, because the road was sunken in places, providing inadequate long-range firing positions. In fact, in most cases, the Germans could march close up to the British positions, which is what they often did. This was especially true at the weakest point in the British line, the right flank west of Le Cateau, where the Germans simply marched straight down the road from the north, all the way to Le Cateau. The British position was on the forward slope and consequently, casualties were heavy during the withdrawal. At 03:30, Smith-Dorrien decided to "strike the enemy hard and after he had done so, continue the retreat". The purpose of the operation was unclear to his subordinates. A "hold at all costs" mentality was evident in the 5th Division on the British right flank. The commander of the 2nd Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, was given a written order that "There will now be NO retirement for the fighting troops; fill up your trenches, with water, food and ammunition as far as you can." The Battle of Le Cateau  ル・カトーの戦い

    2019/07/27 23:22
  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    The advance did little to settle von Hötzendorf's armies into a fluid front. It would be the insecurity of Auffenberg's right flank, positioned in the Pinsk Marshes that would prove a disaster for Conrad. The Second Army he had designated for the invasion of Serbia, thinking Moltke would have three, not one, army on the Eastern Front, was rerouted to the marshes but it arrived too late, presenting an excellent opportunity to the Russians. The gap left open resulted, before the Battle of Komarów was over, in the lost Battle of Gnila Lipa, further in the lost Battle of Rawa and eventually the fall of the important railhead at Lemberg. 1914 would be a disastrous year for Austria-Hungary. The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army. It was part of a larger series of battles known collectively as the Battle of Galicia. The battle ended in a defeat of the Austro-Hungarian forces. The battle is named after a river in Western Ukraine, an historical region of Galicia. It is a tributary of Dniester, and is also called the Hnyla Lypa (Polish: Gnila Lipa). The initial Austro-Hungarian offensive against the invaders in the north of Galicia was a success, gaining victories in the Battles of Kraśnik and Battle of Komarów, in part because the Russian Army had expected the main assault to come further the south near Lemberg and had concentrated their forces there. However, when the Austro-Hungarian Third Army under Rudolf von Brudermann advanced on August 26 with its three Army Corps (XII, III and XI), it encountered a large Russian army consisting of the eight Corps of the Third and Eighth Armies. Fighting on the Zlota Lipa River, the outnumbered Austrians were soundly defeated, and by the end of the day they were in headlong retreat. Army group Kövess also suffered a defeat near Brzezny, though it managed to escape despite being nearly surrounded by the Eighth Army of Aleksei Brusilov. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf ordered a new line of defence to be established on the Gnila Lipa River. The Russians required two days to regroup their troops, which gave the retreating Austrians time enough to recover. Hötzendorf still hoped he could maintain the initiative, and he ordered the Austrian 3rd Corps to attack the Russians near Peremyshliany. Unfortunately for him, the Russian forces there now numbered 292 battalions with 1,304 artillery pieces, against the Austrian 3rd Corps' 115 battalions and just 376 field guns. The Austrian attack was easily turned back, and a massive Russian counterattack shattered the Austrian lines. Kövess also failed to stop a superior Russian force near Rohatyn. The Austrian forces retreated to Lemberg (Lvov), having suffered 20,000 casualties and lost 70 of their cannons.

    2019/07/27 23:17
  • 英語の敬称

    日本人が英語を話していて例えば10歳年上の田中さんを英語の文章に入れる際は「Tanaka-san」になるのですか、それともMr.Tanakaでしょうか? 自分の疑問としては英語の文章だからと言って「タナカ」と呼び捨てにするのはダメなのでしょうか?(※自分が日本人でアメリカ人相手に英語で話す場合) でもアメリカ人に「タナカサン」と言ってもSanは英語ではないので「タナカサン」という苗字かと誤解されないですか?

    2019/07/27 15:23
  • 英文 添削 お願いします

    英語が大の苦手なのですが、今度英語の発表があります。念のため英文の文法とか間違っていないかどうかの確認をお願いします。 ・SNSをするのは良いことか悪いことか? Is it good or bad to do SNS? ・私はSNSをするのは良いか悪いかについて話します。 I will talk about whether it is good or bad to do SNS. ・YouTubeとLINEの利用率がとても高いことが分かります。 You can see that there is great deal of usage rate of the YouTube and LINE. ・私はSNSはデメリットがあると思いますが、良いと思います。 I think SNS has a disadvantage, but it is good. ↑(ちなみにですが、多少デメリットがあると表現したい時はどうすればいいですか?) ・話すのが苦手な人でもSNS上ではさまざまな人たちと関わることができる。 Even people who are not good at speaking can be involved with various people. 添削してほしい英文は以上の5文です。よろしくお願いします。

    2019/07/27 13:16
  • 疲れたと疲れていた

    私は山に登った後はとても疲れました。 私は山に登った後しばらく疲れていました。 どちらの文も I was tired しか思いつかないのですか、 疲れたと、疲れていた、に英語での使い分けはありますか? よろしくお願いします。

    2019/07/27 11:36
  • ALT

    I understood. You are a temporary teacher. Will many foreigners come to your school? I think you and I can have beautiful children. (closed eyes smile) It will certainly be great. I want to see you so much. I think and hope to see you soon. I want it. I know that we will succeed. Do you want to see me? 話をして居たのですが、 なぜか私が期間契約先生になっています。 ALTとは、各公立の小中学校に来る外国人講師(期間契約)が私と思ってます。違う!!!!NOですと言ったのですが、うまく伝わりません。ALT自体を知らないと思います。どう説明したら理解できるでしょうか。

    2019/07/27 07:02
  • what to do with ourselves

    NHK実践ビジネス英語2019年8月Lesson 9 (1)のMcMillanさんの台詞で、 We were at a loss as to what to do with ourselves. テキスト訳「自分たちはどう過ごせばいいのかと、途方にくれました。」 とあります。 at a loss途方に暮れる as to~に関しては、~については、~に応じて do with~を処置する、~をどうにかする McMillan: I hear you, Shota, I hear you. We're all smartphone junkies these days, aren't we? But going cold turkey is possible, believe it or not. Digital detox actually works. At first, we felt cut off from the world around us. We were at a loss as to what to do with ourselves. That sounds strange when I look back at it now in the cold light of reason, but that's how Arabella and I felt at the time. But the digital spell finally broke, and we realized that there was a whole world outside our smartphone screens. @2019年8月L9(1) よくぞここまでてんこ盛りしたねというフレーズ満載の台詞です。 その中にある “do with”は、この講座でもよく出てくるフレーズの一つですが、 “what to do with ourselves”をネット検索すると、次の説明がでてきました。 https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-does-daisys-question-whatll-we-do-with-419196 In The Great Gatsby, what does Daisy's question, "What'll we do with ourselves this afternoon and the day after that, and the next thirty years," suggest about "old money" and the American dream? なんと「華麗なるギャッツビー」のDaisyの台詞ではありませんか。 彼女の台詞は、What'll we do with ourselves?となっていますが、 この文を平叙文のスタイルにすると、 We will do what with ourselves. として、新しい他動詞doの用法だというのは無理があるでしょうから、 We will do with what ourselves. で、whatを句動詞do withの目的語とすると、ourselvesは、以前、教えていただいた “a robot yourself”の文末にある再帰代名詞の強調用法ということでおさまりがいいかと考えました。 ということで、このDaisyの台詞を日本語にすると (1)「ねぇねぇ、これから私たちどうするの」 となるのだと考えましたが、もう少し突っ込んで、 (2)「これから私たちだけでどうするの」 という意味かなとも考えました。これだとby ourselvesになるのかな。 Daisy本人に聞く方が手っ取り早いのですが、彼女を演じたミア・ファローMia Farrowも昔のことで憶えていないでしょうしね。そうかもう一人キャリー・ハンナ・マリガンCarey Hannah Mulliganがいましたね。でも、彼女とは面識がないので… ということで、質問です。 [質問] Daisyの台詞の真意は、次のどれになるのでしょうか? (1)軽いノリでDaisyが言っている (2)もう少し意味深な思いを込めている (3)Daisyの言うことを、あれこれ考えるな よろしくお願いします。 To whom it may concern: ついでながら、 “what’ll…”でネット検索したら、次のような用例がヒットしました。 What’ll you have? 「何食べる?」 What’ll it be? 「ご注文は?」 口語では、普通なんですね。引用httpは省略させていだたきます。 以下、参考まで: I hear youおっしゃることはわかります go cold turkeyきっぱりやめる believe it or not〈話〉信じられないような話ですが、まさかと思うでしょうが、驚くべきことに、何と、信じようと信じまいと digital detoxデジタルデトックス cut off from《be ~》~から疎外される look back at〔昔のことなどを〕振り返る、思い出す in the cold light of reason冷静に思い返すと break a spellのろいを解く digital detox(解毒◆【語源】detoxificationの略) Electronic detox refers to a period of time during which a person refrains from using electronic connecting devices such as smartphones and computers. It is regarded as an opportunity to reduce stress, focus more on social interaction and connection with nature in the physical world. Wikipedia do with (英辞郎on the WEB) 1.~で済ませる[間に合わせる]、~でどうにか我慢する 2.~を処置する、~をどうにかする ・I don't know what to do with myself. : 私はどうしてよいか[自分が何をすべきか]分かりません。/私は自分を持て余しています。 ・She gave me an old hat that she doesn't wear anymore, and I don't know what to do with it. : 彼女がもうかぶらなくなった古い帽子をくれましたが、どう扱っていいか分かりません。 3.〔便宜・利益を〕得る

    2019/07/27 04:55
  • 英訳お願いします

    あなたが私が買った車を自分のもののように乗り回し、どこにも自由に行けなかった4年間の苦しみがあなたにわかるか? 私が利用したUber であなたもそれを使えばいい! 昨日弁護士に言われました。 離婚が成立するまではあなたとは会ってはならない! だから私はこのケースが終わるまではあなたとはこれ以上は接触できません。

    2019/07/27 00:30
  • shimmed offの意味は?

    3mm needs to be shimmed off the front callipers eyelets. Seat bases are shimmed off the floor as well and include plastic spacers. 上記のような場合”shimmed off”はどういう意味でしょうか。よろしくお願いいたします。

    2019/07/26 22:35
  • 主語は??

    Some anomalous gene had fired up at the moment of his begetting as a single spark sometimes leaps from banked coals, had given him a giant's chin. 主語は「Some anomalous gene had fired up at the moment of his begetting as a single spark sometimes leaps from banked coals」の名詞節で合っていますか?

    2019/07/26 10:10
  • 英語 未来形の問題です

    ()内の語をwillかbe going toの未来形にする問題です。 I'm so excited! Tomorrow____in Paris. -I wish I could go with you.(Sara and I/be) 解説もお願いします。

    2019/07/26 00:13
  • 高校 英語

    原文 A:When do (1)you (2)play soccer? B:I play soccer (3)after school. How about you? A:I play soccer (4)before school. (1)~(4)を (1)Ken (2)do his homework (3)at night (4)early in the morningに変えて文章を作り直してください、お願いします。

    2019/07/25 18:30
  • to不定詞以外の前置詞不定詞がないのはなぜですか?

    不定詞について調べてもいまいちわからないのですが、 to不定詞 to+動詞の原形 はありますが in 不定詞、at不定詞、on不定詞、等がなく、なぜtoだけto不定詞があり、 独特の意味や効果を持つのでしょうか?

    2019/07/25 09:54
  • 副詞は助動詞も修飾できますか?

    do not can not 等 doが助動詞、notが副詞で助動詞を修飾しているのでしょうか?

    2019/07/25 09:19
  • グーグル翻訳は

    翻訳後と、それをあたらに逆翻訳すると見事に意味不明な翻訳になるんですが、なぜでしょうか。私も、なぜか、あなたはめちゃくちゃ怒ってるとおくっており(私もわからん) ううん?ぼくは君に怒ったことは無いよいつもgoodで~~っす。と返事が来ました。 その後は、くさーい事を言ってくるのですが、誰にでも言ってくるのかな。 I also think about you every day. Constantly looking at the mail Waiting for your messages. I adore you. You mean so much to me.  最愛の人ですか?。

    2019/07/25 03:58
  • 英訳をお願いします。

    はじめまして 以下の英訳をお願い出来ればと思います。 よろしくお願いします。 Just think how happy you would be if you lost everything you have right now, and then got it back again. Go look at those kids that starved to death. Sometimes you need something much more miserable than you to feel good about yourself.

    2019/07/24 09:45
  • 英語でのビジネスメールの返信

    We have initiated a complaint investigation in our system for this issue, see attached letter. Your complaint reference number is 0123456. We will send you a summary of the investigation when it is complete. Best regards, このメールに返信しないといけないんですけど Dear Michael Thank you for your response. だけだと失礼でしょうか。 了解しました、や調査よろしくお願いします、と言いたいんですがどなたか失礼のない英文を教えていただけないでしょうか。 よろしくお願いいたします。

    2019/07/24 08:39

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