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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    In 2007, Jean Glad wrote that the length of the siege deprived the German 1st and 2nd armies of troops, adding to their difficulties as they pursued the retreating Franco-British Armies towards the Marne. The siege was primarily an artillery operation, in which the infantry of the VII Reserve Corps followed up French retirements caused by the destructive effects of the German super-heavy artillery. Fournier might have delayed the opening of the German bombardment by occupying advanced positions beyond the eastern perimeter but lack of troops and their inexperience led Fournier to fear that they might collapse when the Germans attacked and leave the way clear to the town. In Principal Events, 1914–1918 (1922) British official historians recorded that 40,000 French soldiers were taken prisoner during the siege of Maubeuge. Hew Strachan in 2003 wrote that 600 guns were captured by the Germans and in a 2004 web article, Didier Lodier wrote that 1,300 French troops had been killed and 45,000 men (including 3,000 wounded) were captured along with 400 guns (most damaged) for 2,500 German casualties. In 2009, Holger Herwig wrote that the Germans took 32,692 prisoners and 450 guns when Maubeuge was surrendered on 6 September; the Germans suffered 1,100 casualties. The Battle of the Trouée de Charmes (French: Bataille de la trouée de Charmes) or Battle of the Mortagne was fought at the beginning of World War I, between 24 and 26 August 1914 by the French Second Army and the German 6th Army, after the big German victory at the Battle of the Frontiers, earlier in August. From 1874 to 1880, General Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières oversaw the construction of the Séré de Rivières system, a line of fortresses 65 km (40 mi) long from Belfort to Épinal and another line 65 km (40 mi) long from Toul to Verdun, about 40 km (25 mi) from the Franco–German border. The River Meuse flows northwards from Toul to Verdun, Mézières and Givet on the Belgian border and there is a tributary of the Moselle between Belfort and Épinal, the rivers running near parallel to the 1871–1919 Franco–German border. A 70 km (43 mi) wide interruption in the French fortifications was left between Épinal and Toul, known as the Trouée de Charmes (Charmes Gap), which was west of Nancy, about 12 km (7.5 mi) from the Franco-German frontier. The Battle of the Trouée de Charmes トゥルームドシャルムの戦い ※読みがわかりません。

    2019/08/15 22:17
  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Fournier decided to open negotiations to play for time and hold out until the night of 8 September if possible. Just before noon, Fournier sent Captain Grenier to Zwehl, carrying a letter asking for a 24-hour truce, to bury the dead and discuss surrender terms. Zwehl gave Grenier four hours to return to Fournier and continued the attack. While Grenier had been on his way to Zwehl, Fournier had raised a white flag on the Maubeuge church tower and Brigadier Rene de PeyreCave had the signal repeated in the first sector. Troops began to lay down their arms and 1,000 to 1,500 of the defenders managed to slip away to the west and reach safety. Isolated near le Douzies, Ville saw German troops 200–300 m (220–330 yd) and to honour the truce ordered his troops to cease-fire. General Neuhaus and a party of German cavalry attempted to take Ville prisoner but he objected because Fournier was still negotiating, as could be seen by the white flag over Maubeuge. Neuhaus concluded a local agreement that the French would stay in their positions on either side of the Le Douzies–Hautmont road. Soon afterwards a German parlementaire took Ville to General Andreas von Harbou at Fort de Laveau where he was shown twelve 77 mm field guns and given a ten-minute ultimatum they would open fire unless he surrendered. Ville could see that his soldiers had ceased hostilities and that most were unarmed, with no more artillery, Ville surrendered the Fourth Sector to prevent more bloodshed. When Grenier returned to Fournier, he bowed to the inevitable and sent Grenier back with his surrender of the Entrenched Camp of Maubeuge, to take effect at noon on 8 September. In the first weeks of the German invasion, much of the rail network in Belgium and northern France was closed by demolitions before the Germans arrived and only the single line from Trier to Liège, Brussels, Valenciennes and Cambrai remained available to the German armies in the north. A maximum of forty trains a day could be run, which meant that the transport of one corps took four days. The fall of Maubeuge made the Diedenhofen to Luxembourg line available once the rail bridge at Namur was repaired.

    2019/08/15 22:13
  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Maubeuge came under increased bombardment and the Porte de France district caught fire, the flames rising high into the sky, shell explosions mingling with the sound of small-arms fire. Behind the remaining defensive positions, long columns of civilians and deserters fled south-west towards Hautmont. The village was already full of refugees and a huge throng of people built up. Fournier stayed in Maubeuge as reports came in showing that the defence of Maubeuge was collapsing. By 6:00 p.m. it was clear that half of the defences had fallen. Fournier called another council of war at which the participants stated that fighting on for a few more hours would be a useless sacrifice of lives. Fournier refused to contemplate surrender and sent orders to Ville that the remaining defenders were to retire during the night to a position from the Maubeuge walls at Faubourg St Guillain, north-west to Fort de Leveau. The bombardment during the night of 6/7 September reached a new level of intensity. The general reserve was down to six companies of the 145th Infantry Regiment and five of the 345th Reserve Infantry Regiment, west of the Leveau–Maubeuge road. The infantry were covered by two batteries of 75 mm field guns, in the petit bois de Douzies to the west of Maubeuge and the artillery of Fort de Leveau to the north, the defenders prepared for a German attack next morning. From 5:00 – 11:00 a.m. Ouvrage d’Héronfontaine, north of Maubeuge up the Mons road and north-east of Fort de Leveau was bombarded by 305 mm and 420 mm howitzers which forced the defenders to evacuate. German infantry, exploiting natural cover, got into Bois des Sarts, behind the ouvrage and the defenders had to retreat to the west. The German super-heavy guns switched to Fort de Leveau and after thirty minutes, the garrison retreated. The rest of the sector was shelled by German medium artillery which knocked out most of the French guns. The left flank of the French defence line began to buckle and the troops in Ouvrage de Feignies were forced out, leaving exposed the centre of defences improvised by Ville northwards from Mabeuge. South of the Sambre, Austrian 305 mm howitzers bombarded Ouvrage de Ferriére la Petite and Fort du Bourdiau from behind, quickly making them untenable and endangering the right flank of the line behind the Solre. Reports of the collapse soon reached Fournier and that only half the infantry was left, its spirit broken; the French guns had all been knocked out and d’Hautmont was the last fort under French control. Fournier realised that Maubeuge was doomed and that an attempt to delay the Germans on the south side of the Sambre would quickly be forced back on the village of Hautmont, which was thronged with thousands of refugees.

    2019/08/15 22:11
  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    To the south-east, ferme de la Salmagne was captured; at Fort de Boussois every attack was repulsed. With the defensive perimeter breached, Fournier called a council of war that evening for opinion on whether to fight to the end at Maubeuge or to attempt a breakout towards Quesnoy and Arras. The participants were unanimous in wanting to prolong the resistance of the Entrenched Camp for as long as possible. At 5:00 p.m. the colours of the garrison units were collected at caserne Joyeuse (Joyeuse Barracks) to be burned the next morning. The bombardment continued unabated and Colonel Vasudevan, the commander at ouvrages Bersillies and La Salmagne, ordered the evacuation of the defences except at Ouvrage La Salmagne. At 4:00 p.m. German troops occupied Bersillies and encircled Ouvrage La Salmagne. The garrison was eventually overrun, only 51 men surviving to be taken prisoner. In the valley of the Sambre, the defenders of Fort la Boussois repulsed German attacks, barring the Jeumont–Maubeuge road. Ville ordered a retirement from the rest of the perimeter defences in the area; All the rest of the point of support was evacuated by order of the General city, who understood how much his garrison was venturing. South of the Sambre, the artillery around Ouvrage de Rocq was demolished by the German heavy howitzers. By evening, most of the Fourth Sector had been captured and Ville rallied the defenders on the support position from Élesmes, northwards to Mairieux and the 31st Colonial Regiment relieved the 145th Infantry Regiment, which took over the third line at Pont Allant. The German bombardment on Maubeuge led the mayor to get permission from Fournier to evacuate the civilians to Hautmont. The Fort du Boussois garrison was still holding out but morale had collapsed among some of the defenders. South of the Sambre in the Third Sector, Recquignies was attacked from the north and part was captured the attackers also penetrated west of Ouvrage de Rocq. Already under a frontal attack and vulnerable to being encircled, the garrison retreated quickly, having time only to destroy its ammunition. Motte attempted to improvise another defensive position from Bois des Bons Péres to Fort de Cerfontaine. The German bombardment increased in severity; Fort de Cerfontaine was evacuated and the French position collapsed. Motte managed to hold the line of the Solre stream, with the left flank resting on the Sambre and the right on Ouvrage de Ferrière la Petite. As night fell, Motte rallied scattered parties of troops to continue resistance. North of the Sambre, the Mairieux––Élesmes line was overrun and Ville tried to hold a line from Saris to Grandcamp and Petitcamp. Ville then ordered a retirement to reorganise and hold a line from the Mons road crossroads to Le Sarts and Bois des Sarts to Ouvrage d'Héronfontaine.

    2019/08/15 22:10
  • 英語わかる人


    2019/08/10 18:11
  • 英語でどう表現しますか? 食品で、バターが仕込

    英語でどう表現しますか? 食品で、バターが仕込み時に〇〇%.海老が仕込み時に〇〇%と英語で表現する場合、特に、仕込み時と言う表現、決まった文句がありますか?30% butter in preparing shrimp 20% in cooking などが思いつきますが、正しい表現をお願いします

    2019/08/07 19:55
  • 英会話スクール探してます!

    英語を学ぼうと思ってるんですが… どこのスクール・会社が良いのか迷ってます。 ぜひ、おすすめを教えて⤴

    2019/08/06 17:34